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CHILD LABOUR What is child labour?  The International Labour Organisation (ILO) defines child labour as work that deprives children of their childhood, their potential and their dignity, and that is harmful to their physical and mental development.  However, children or adolescents who participate in work that does not affect their health and personal development or interfere with their schooling, is not child labour. Example: helping their parents at home, assisting family or earning pocket money outside school hours and on holidays. Child Labour in India- Statistics:  According to 2011 Census, there were more than 10.2 million “economically active” children in the age group of 5to 14-5.6 million boys and 4.5 million girls.  Child labour has decreased in rural areas however; it has increased drastically in the urban areas  An analysis (2016) by CRY (Child Rights and You) of census data shows that the overall decrease in child labour is only 2.2%per year from 2001 to 2011.  There are five states which are the India’s biggest child labour employers- Uttar Pradesh, Bihar Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra. Nature of Child Labour in India: 1. Change in Location of work: There has been an increasing involvement of children in home-based works and in the informal sector. The change in type of child labour mainly attributes to enforcement of legislation and awareness amongst buyers about child exploitation. 2. Nature of work in Rural-Urban Areas:  In urban areas, a large number of children are engaged in manual domestic work, rag picking, restaurants, motor repair shops etc.  In rural sector children are engaged in the agricultural sector including cotton growing, at glass, match box and brass and lock-making factories, in embroidery, rag-picking, beedi-rolling, in the carpet-making industry, in mining and stone quarrying, brick kilns and tea gardens amongst others. 3. Gender: The division of labour is gender-specific with girls being engaged in more domestic and home-based work, and boys working as wage labourers. 4. Bonded child labour: Bonded labour means the employment of a person against a loan or debt or social obligation by the family of the child or family as a whole. Bonded child labourers are often found in agriculture sector or assisting their families in brick kilns, and stone quarries. The Bonded Labour Liberation Front estimates 10 million bonded children in India. 5. Migrant children: Migrant children are often forced to drop-out schools and are inevitably put to work at work-sites. Causes of Child Labour: 1. Poverty and Indebtedness:  Poverty is the greatest cause of child labour. For impoverished households, income from a child’s work is usually crucial for his or her own survival or for that of the household.Children are also bonded to labour due to a family indebtedness.  Rural poverty and urban migration also often exposes children to being trafficked for work 2. Adult unemployment and under-employment: high prevalence of adult unemployment and under-employment often force children to work to support family. 3. Illiteracy and Ignorance of child’s parents: Illiteracy of the child’s parents further worsens the situation. Illiteracy and Lack of awareness of the harmful effects of child labour make them violate the law and put their children under the risk of inhuman exploitation. 4. Lack of access to basic and meaningful quality education and skills training:  The prevailing educational infrastructure is highly unsuitable to children of economically deprived families. Further deplorable quality of education has led to increasing dropout rates and forced children into child labour.  Compulsory education does not cover 15-18 age group. However, being illiterate or school dropouts, these children are vulnerable and often exploited as part of informal, unskilled and casual workforce. 5. Demand for child labour: Increasing demand for child labour especially in urban areas is an important reason of prevalence and increase in child labour. Children are employed because they are cheap and flexible according to the demands of the employer and not aware of their rights. 6. Cultural factors: An expectation that children should contribute to the socioeconomic survival of the family and community, as well as the existence of large families contribute to prevalence of child labour.  Children often take up family’s traditional work from an early age. For example, a Goldsmith’s son takes to gold-smithery, or a carpenter’s child takes up carpentry from an early age 7. Social factors: There is a strong correlation between India’s differentiated social structure and child labour. The majority of child labourers in India belong to the so called lower castes (SCs), the tribal and Muslim religious minority. Impact of Prevalence of Child Labour: 1. Child labour impedes children from gaining the skills and education they need to have opportunities of decent work as an adult. 2. Child labour deprives a child of his/her childhood. It not only denies his/her right to education but also right to leisure 3. Child labourers face major health and physical risks: they work long hours and are required to perform tasks for which they are physically and developmentally unprepared. Working in hazardous conditions adversely affects a child’s physical and mental health and impairs intellectual, emotional and psychological development 4. Poverty: Child labour is both a cause and consequence of poverty. Household poverty forces children into the labour market to earn money. Thus the children miss out on an opportunity to gain an education, further perpetuating household poverty across generations 5. Presence of a large number of child labourers has long term effect on the economy; it is a serious obstacle to socio-economic welfare of a country. International Safeguards International Labour Organization (ILO) Conventions  The two Core Conventions directly related to child labour are that of ILO Convention 138 (Minimum age convention) and 182 (Worst forms of Child Labour Convention). India has ratified both the Core Conventions of International Labour Organization (ILO) Conventions Declaration of Rights of Child, 1959 Universal declaration of human rights 1948 – stipulates (under article 25) that childhood is entitled to special care and assistance. The above principles along with other principles of universal declaration concerning child were incorporated in the Declaration of the Rights of the Child, 1959. United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1989 It sets out different rights of children- civil, political, economic, cultural, social and health. Article 32 states that the government should protect children from work that is dangerous or might harm their health or their education. Policy Framework surrounding Child Labour: Child Labour (Prohibition & Regulation) Act, 1986 Based on the recommendations of the Gurupadswammy Committee (1979), the Act was passed in 1986. It has following objectives:  to prohibit the engagement of children in certain employments  and to regulate the conditions of work of children in certain other employments Evolution of the Policy on Child Labour The National Policy for Children, 1974, declared children to be a 'supreme national asset'. It pledged measures to secure and safeguard all their needs, declaring that this could be done by making wise use of available national resources. However pious may be the intent, this did not change the ground reality. So way back in 1979, the Government formed the first committee called Gurupadswamy Committee to study the issue of child labour and to suggest measures to tackle it. The Committee examined the problem in detail and made some far-reaching recommendations. It observed that as long as poverty continued, it would be difficult to totally eliminate child labor. Hence, any attempt to abolish it through legal recourse would not be a practical proposition The Committee felt that in the circumstances, the only alternative left was to ban child labour in hazardous areas and to regulate and ameliorate the conditions of work in other areas. It recommended that a multiple policy approach was required in dealing with the problems of working children Based on the recommendations of Gurupadaswamy Committee, the Child Labour (Prohibition & Regulation) Act was enacted in 1986. The Act prohibits employment of children in certain specified hazardous occupations below the age of 14 years. The law does not protect children who perform domestic or unreported labour Through a recent notification, child domestic workers up to 14 years of age working in hotels and dhabas have been brought within the purview of the Act. It is one step towards the total elimination of child labour. Later a National Policy on Child Labour was formulated in 1987. The Policy seeks to adopt a gradual & sequential approach with a focus on rehabilitation of children working in hazardous occupations & processes in the first instance. Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Amendment Act, 2016 • The raw act in the Constitution that was amended in the year 2016 can be stated as: • “An Act to prohibit the engagement of children in all occupations and to prohibit the engagement of adolescents in hazardous occupations and processes and the matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.” According to this amendment in the Act, the Government of India will provide stricter punishments for employers who violate the Act. It will also make the employer employing any child or adolescent in contravention of the Act cognizable. The Act also allows the government to bar the employment of adolescents that are working in any hazardous conditions. Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Amendment Rules,2017 The Government of India decided to make further amendments in the Act after extensive consultation with the stakeholders. Provisions under the Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Amendment Rules are as follows: • A broad and specific framework for prevention, prohibition, rescue and rehabilitation of children and as well as adolescent workers. • Clarity on issues related to family enterprises. • Safeguards for creative workers or artists that have been permitted to work under the Act, with respect to working hours and working conditions. • Set of specific duties and responsibilities for law enforcement agencies to ensure effective implementation and compliance of the Act. AFTER AMENDMENT • Complete prohibition of employment of children below the age of 14 • Children allowed to work only after school hours or during vacations under the condition that the occupations were hazardous. • Children below the age of 14 years will be allowed to work in Family Business/Enterprises only if they are non-hazardous. • Children will be able to work in family businesses even if it didn’t belong to the child’s family only if the occupation is non-hazardous. • Children between 14-18 years are categorised as Adolescents and are not allowed to work in hazardous occupations. • Regulated working conditions for adolescents working in non-hazardous occupations are in place. • A child can’t work in any occupation, so the list of prohibited occupations has been made infinite as there is a complete ban on employment. • Schedule of hazardous processes and occupations provided where an adolescent cannot work. • The government can provide a positive list of non-hazardous occupations where an adolescent can work and a child can assist. • District Magistrate or a subordinate officer can be made responsible for enforcement and can be conferred with such powers. Provision for laying specific responsibility on the designated Officer for violating the provisions of the Act – this ensures better enforcement. • Statutory provision for a child and adolescent labour rehabilitation fund with contribution of appropriate Government also ensured for each child rescued. The statutory provision for a rehabilitation fund will ensure that the child/adolescent is not only rescued but his/her future is secured by the amount collected in the fund. This amount can be used for the education and welfare of the rescued child. National Child Labour Project (NCLP) for the rehabilitation of child labour. Under the scheme Special Schools/Rehabilitation Centres for the rehabilitation of child labourers are opened. These Centers provide nonformal education, vocational training, supplementary nutrition and stipend to children withdrawn from employment. INDO-US Child Labour Project (INDUS): The Ministry of Labour, GoI and the US Department of Labour have initiated a project aimed at eliminating child labour in 10 hazardous sectors across 21 districts in five States. Articles related to Child labour in India Article 14 (No child below the age of 14 years shall be employed to work in any factory or mine or engaged in any other dangerous employment. As per Article 21(A) – The child has the right to Education i.e. the state shall provide compulsory and free education to the children of the age six to 14 years. Right to Education Act (RTE) provided free and compulsory education to children in 2009 and enforced it as a fundamental right under Article 21-A. Why Right to Education? The Right to Education serves as a building block to ensure that every child has his or her right to get a quality elementary education. Constitutional Background  Originally Part IV of Indian Constitution, Article 45 and Article 39 (f) of DPSP, had a provision for state funded as well as equitable and accessible education.  The first official document on the Right to Education was Ramamurti Committee Report in 1990.  In 1993, the Supreme Court’s landmark judgment in the Unnikrishnan JP vs State of Andhra Pradesh & Others held that Education is a Fundamental right flowing from Article 21.  Tapas Majumdar Committee (1999) was set up, which encompassed insertion of Article 21A.  The 86th amendment to the constitution of India in 2002, provided Right to Education as a fundamental right in part-III of the Constitution.  The same amendment inserted Article 21A which made Right to Education a fundamental right for children between 6-14 years.  The 86th amendment provided for a follow-up legislation for Right to Education Bill 2008 and finally Right to Education Act 2009. Feature of Right to Education (RTE) Act, 2009  The RTE Act aims to provide primary education to all children aged 6 to 14 years.  It enforces Education as a Fundamental Right (Article 21).  The act mandates 25% reservation for disadvantaged sections of the society where disadvantaged groups include: o SCs and STs o Socially Backward Class o Differently abled  It also makes provisions for a non-admitted child to be admitted to an age appropriate class.  It also states that sharing of financial and other responsibilities between the Central and State Governments.  It lays down the norms and standards related to: o Pupil Teacher Ratios (PTRs) o Buildings and infrastructure o School-working days o Teacher-working hours.  It had a clause for “No Detention Policy” which has been removed under The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (Amendment) Act, 2019.  It also provides for prohibition of deployment of teachers for non-educational work, other than decennial census, elections to local authority, state legislatures and parliament, and disaster relief.  It provides for the appointment of teachers with the requisite entry and academic qualifications.  It prohibits o Physical punishment and mental harassment o Screening procedures for admission of children o Capitation fee o Private tuition by teachers o Running of schools without recognition  It focuses on making the child free of fear, trauma and anxiety through a system of child friendly and child centred learning. Achievements of Right to Education Act,2009  The RTE Act has successfully managed to increase enrolment in the upper primary level (Class 6-8).  Stricter infrastructure norms resulted in improved school infrastructure, especially in rural areas.  More than 3.3 million students secured admission under 25% quota norm under RTE.  It made education inclusive and accessible nationwide.  Removal of “no detention policy” has brought accountability in the elementary education system.  The Government has also launched an integrated scheme, for school education named as Samagra Shiksha Abhiyan, which subsumes the three schemes of school education: o Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) o Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA) o Centrally Sponsored Scheme on Teacher Education (CSSTE). Limitation of Right to Education Act, 2009  Age group for which Right to Education is available ranges from 6 – 14 years of age only, which can be made more inclusive and encompassing by expanding it to 0 – 18 years.  There is no focus on quality of learning, as shown by multiple ASER reports, thus RTE Act appears to be mostly input oriented.  Five States namely Goa, Manipur, Mizoram, Sikkim and Telangana have not even issued notification regarding 25% seats for underprivileged children of society under the RTE.  More focus is being given over statistics of RTE rather than quality of learning.  Lack of teachers affect pupil-teacher ratio mandated by RTE which in turn affects the quality of teaching . Steps to Be Taken  Minority Religious Schools need to be brought under the RTE.  More focus on teacher training programs.  Quality of education needs to be emphasized over quantity of education.  Steps should be taken to make the teaching profession attractive.  Society as a whole needs to be supportive of education for children without biases. Article 24: Prohibition of employment of children in factories, etc. No child below the age fourteen years shall be employed in work in any factory or mine or engaged in any other hazardous employment. Article 39-E ( The state shall direct its policy towards securing that the health and strength of workers, men and women, and the tender age of children are not abused, and that they are not forced by economic necessity to enter vocations unsuitable to their area and strength. Article 39-F (Children shall be given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity, and that childhood and youth shall be protected against moral and material abandonment. Rescue & Repatriation: • During inspections and raids, children identified are rescued, and rehabilitative measures are set forth in motion by way of repatriation, in case of migrant child labour, and providing bridge education with ultimate objective of mainstreaming them into the formal system of education. Besides pre-vocational training is also provided to the rescued children. Rehabilitation: • With regard to educational rehabilitation, the government is implementing National Child Labour Project Scheme (NCLP) in 266 child labour endemic districts in 20 States. Objectives of the Scheme are: I. This is the major Central Sector Scheme for the rehabilitation of child labour. II. The Scheme seeks to adopt a sequential approach with focus on rehabilitation of children working in hazardous occupations & processes in the first instance; III. Under the Scheme, survey of child labour engaged in hazardous occupations & processes has been conducted; IV. The identified children are to be withdrawn from these occupations & processes and then put into special schools in order to enable them to be mainstreamed into formal schooling system; and V. Project Societies at the district level are fully funded for opening up of special schools/Rehabilitation Centres for the rehabilitation of child labour. • Under the Scheme, children found working in hazardous occupations are withdrawn from work and put into bridge schools, where they are provided with formal/non-formal education, vocational training, health care, mid-day meal, and stipend of Rs.150 per month, with ultimate objective of mainstreaming them into formal educational system. • At present, 7311 special schools are in operation with enrolment of 3.2 lakh children. Under the Scheme, about 8.52 lakh children have been mainstreamed into formal system since inception. IMPORTANT CASE RELATED TO CHILD LABOUR M.C. Mehta v. State of Tamil Nadu and others Background: This case arose out of a public interest litigation filed by M.C. Mehta in the Supreme Court of India under Article 32 of the Constitution of India, in respect of employment of children in the match industry in Sivakasi. Since the problem of child labour was rampant throughout the country, the court thought it appropriate to deal with the issue in a wider manner treating it as a national problem. Recommendations made by court-appointed committee: In the course of the hearing, the court appointed an advocates committee to visit the area and make a comprehensive report relating to the various aspects of the matter, as mentioned in the order of 14 August 1991. The committee was to consist of three advocates: Shri R.K. Jain, Ms Indira Jaisingh, and Shri K.C. Dua. The committee submitted its report on 11.11.91. The report contained many recommendations: a) The State of Tamil Nadu should be directed to ensure that children are not employed in fireworks factories. (b) The children employed in the match factories for packing must work in separate premises. (c) Employers should not be permitted make the children work for more than six hours a day. (d) Proper transport facilities should be provided by the employers and the state government. (e) Facilities for recreation and education should be provided in or around the factory. (f) Employers should make arrangements for providing basic diet to the children. In case they fail to do so, the government may be directed to provide for basic diet – the ‘one meal a day’ programme of the State of Tamil Nadu for school children may be extended to the child worker. (g) Piece-rate wages should be abolished and payment should be made on a monthly basis. Wage should be proportionate to the work done by the child. (h) All workers working in the industry should be brought under the Insurance Scheme. (i) For Sivakasi area, a committee should be headed by a retired High Court judge or a person of equal status along with two social workers, who should be answerable either to the Supreme Court or to the High Court. Employers of all the industries should be directed to deposit Rs 2 per month per worker towards a welfare fund, and the State should be directed to make a matching contribution. (j) A National Commission for children's welfare should be set up to prepare a scheme for child labour abolition in a phased manner. It should be answerable to the Supreme Court and report its progress at periodical intervals to the Supreme Court. Observations made by the Supreme Court The Supreme Court recognised that Sivakasi had ceased to be the only centre employing child labour; the malady was no longer confined to that place. The court also recognised that child labour was an all-pervasive national problem in India even after 50 years of independence – and despite the enactment of various legislations. Further, the Supreme Court recognised poverty as a basic cause for child labour. The court observed that until an alternative income was assured to the family, child labour could never be effectively tackled. Directions given by the Supreme Court To resolve the problem of child labour, the Supreme Court gave the following directions: • Every state government must conduct a survey, to be completed within six months, on the types of child labour carried out in the state. • The survey could begin with the modes of employment mentioned under Article 24 of the Constitution of India. The most hazardous employment would rank first in priority, to be followed by a comparatively less hazardous employment, and so on. • To ensure compliance with Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986, an employer must be asked to pay a sum of Rs 20,000 as compensation for every child employed in contravention of the provisions of the Act • The employer would be liable to pay this amount even if he were to disengage the child presently employed. • The inspectors, appointed under Section 17 of the Act, would bear the responsibility of ensuring this. • The sum paid as compensation should be deposited in a fund to be known as Child Labour Rehabilitation-cum-Welfare Fund. • Such a fund should be established district-wise or area-wise. • The fund so generated should be used only for the concerned child. The income earned through the fund would also be a part of the fund. To generate greater income, the fund could be deposited in a high-yielding scheme of any nationalised bank or other public body • The State should ensure that an adult member of the family (whose name would be suggested by the parent/guardian of the concerned child) whose child is in employment in a factory or a mine or in other hazardous work gets a job anywhere, in lieu of the child. • The employment could be combined with other assured employment as this would not require generation of much additional employment. • The employment so given could be in the same industry where the child was employed or a public undertaking, and could be manual in nature. The undertaking chosen for employment shall be one that is nearest to the place of residence of the family. • In those cases where it would not be possible to provide employment to the adult member, the appropriate government would deposit a sum of Rs 25,000 every month for each child employed in a factory, a mine, or any other hazardous employment, in the Child Labour Rehabilitation-cum-Welfare Fund. • In case of obtaining employment for an adult, the parent/guardian shall have to withdraw their child from work. Even if no employment was provided, the parent/guardian shall have to see that the child is spared from the requirement to work, as an alternative source of income would have become available to him. • The employment given or payment made would cease to be operative if the child is not sent by the parent/guardian for education. • On discontinuation of the employment of the child, his education would be assured in a suitable institution. It would be the duty of the inspector to see to it that free and compulsory education up until the age of 14 is provided to the child. • Penal provision contained in the Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986, would be used where employment of a child labour prohibited by the Act is found. • Also, wherever child labour is employed in non-hazardous jobs (which is permissible under the Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986), the working hours of the child must not be more than four to six hours a day. Every child so employed must receive education for at least two hours each day. The entire cost of education must be borne by the employer. It would be the responsibility of the inspector to ensure this. • Monitoring Authorities  The district collector would be responsible for monitoring the functioning of the inspectors  In view of the magnitude of the task, a separate cell in the Labour Department of the appropriate government would be created.  The Secretary of the Labour Department would be responsible for monitoring the scheme.  Overall monitoring by the Ministry of Labour, Government of India, would be beneficial and worthwhile. STEPS TAKEN BY TAMILNADU GOVERNMENT Eradication of Child Labour: Children are the most valuable asset of the country and ensuring their proper education, health, safety and overall development is the utmost priority of the Government of Tamil Nadu. The Government have adopted multipronged strategy which includes both stringent legislative and project based approach. Effective enforcement and implementation of the provisions of the various legislations, convergence of resources of Government both horizontally and vertically, co-ordination between various stake holders and active involvement of the community is the key in attaining the ambitious goal of a child labour free society. The concerted efforts taken by the State Government have resulted in perceptible decline of the number of child labour in the State. Enforcement : The Child and Adolescent Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986 and the allied Acts prohibiting employment of Children are implemented in the State by the officials of the Commissionerate of Labour and the Directorate of Industrial Safety and Health. The State has notified Assistant Commissioners of Labour (Enforcement) as Nodal Officers for each district vide G.O.(Ms) No.130, Labour and Employment (U1) Department, dated 28.07.2017. Consequent upon strengthening the legislative framework for complete prohibition of employment of children below 14 years, the Government of India have provided a vibrant enforcement mechanism in the form of an online portal ‘PENCIL’ (Platform for Effective Enforcement of No Child Labour). Awareness Generation: Every year, June 12 is observed as ‘Anti Child Labour Day’ to create awareness among the public. At districts level, many awareness activities like oath taking in schools and Government offices, rallies, human chains and awareness meetings are being conducted. At the State level, Anti Child Labour Day message from the Hon’ble Chief Minister was published in various Tamil and English dailies. Mainstreamed students from National Child Labour Project Special Training Centres who scored high marks in 10th and 12th Standard Public Examinations were given cash awards and the best Special Training Teachers were felicitated for their work. Every year, in the All India Industrial and Tourism Trade Fair organised at Island Grounds, Chennai, various awareness generation activities such as signature campaign, distribution of pamphlets and administering of pledge against employment of child labour is taken up in the pavilion earmarked for this department. National Child Labour Project In Tamil Nadu the National Child Labour Project (NCLP) funded by the Government of India is implemented in 15 Districts. The NCLP society is headed by District Collector, who is the chairperson of the District Child Labour Monitoring Committee. Currently, 312 Special Training Centers are functioning in the 15 NCLP project districts in which 7,040 rescued child labourers are studying. During 2017-18, the number of mainstreamed children into regular schools was 3,482. A stipend of Rs.400/- per month, educational materials, free uniform, free medical check-up etc., are provided to children supported by NCLP. The State Government is providing a monthly cash assistance of Rs.500/- to the erstwhile child labour from NCLP schools to pursue higher education. During the academic year 2017-2018, 782 students have been benefited to the tune of Rs.46.92 Lakh. Abolition of Bonded Labour System The Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act, 1976 and the bonded labour rehabilitation scheme provide for economic and social rehabilitation of the freed bonded labourers including their skilling and capacity building. The subject of rehabilitation of bonded labour is with the Labour Department from 01.04.2017. All the Assistant Commissioners of Labour (Enforcement) have been appointed as Nodal Officers for the implementation of the Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act, 1976 and the Central Sector Scheme for Rehabilitation of Bonded Labourer 2016 for their respective administrative jurisdiction. A Standard Operating Procedure for identification, release and rehabilitation of bonded labour is being prepared in order to provide guidelines to various stake holders for effective implementation of the Act and the 2016 Scheme. The rescued bonded labourers are rehabilitated with immediate assistance amount of Rs.20,000/-, Public Distribution System Ration Card, Community Certificate, Employment, Education, Skill Training, enrolment in SHG and medical needs. Further, the rescued bonded labourers are being enrolled in the relevant Unorganized Workers Welfare Boards so as to enable them to avail the benefits eligible to them under the respective schemes. Labour Department has developed a comprehensive data base, which includes all details from the initial stage of survey to the end of prosecution of the case including rescue and rehabilitation of bonded labour. ABOUT THE MID DAY MEAL SCHEME PURATCHI THALAIVAR M.G.R. NUTRITIOUS MEAL PROGRAMME Education lays the foundation for the development of a society and hunger becomes an impediment to learning. Keeping this vision, the Nutritious Meal Programme was introduced by the then Chief Minister Puratchi Thalaivar Dr. M.G.R. on 01.07.1982. The main objective of the programme is to emphasize on education along with nutrition. Under this programme free hot cooked nutritious meal is being provided to children in Government Schools, Government aided Schools, Special Training Centres, Madarasas, Maktabs supported under Sarva Shiksha Abiyan and also in Special Schools functioning under National Child Labour Programme. Objectives of the Programme • To maximize enrolment and reduce school dropout rates with a view to universalize elementary education. • To provide nutrition to the under fed and under nourished children. • To encourage children from disadvantaged background to attend school regularly and to help them in attaining formal education. • To empower women by providing employment opportunities Milestones of Nutritious Meal Programme The Nutritious Meal Programme was introduced on 01.07.1982 for the Children in the age groups of 2 to 5 years in anganwadi and 5 to 9 years in primary schools. The scheme was extended to urban areas with effect from 15.09.1982 and further extended to all the children in the age group of 10-15 years from 15.09.1984. Salient Features of the Scheme • Primary School children in the age group of 5-9 years and Upper Primary School children in the age group of 10-15 years are provided with hot cooked nutritious variety meals in the school for five days in a week for a total of 210 days in a year. • The children enrolled under National Child Labour Project Special Schools in 16 Districts viz., Kancheepuram, Vellore, Tiruvannamalai, Namakkal, Dharmapuri, Krishnagiri, Salem, Coimbatore, Erode, Tiruppur, Thiruchirappalli, Dindigul, Virudhunagar, Tirunelveli, Thoothukudi and Chennai are also provided with hot cooked nutritious variety meals for 312 days in a year. • Food grains (rice) @ 100 gm per child per school day for primary school children (1st Std. to 5th Std.) and @ 150 gm for upper primary and high school (6th Std. to 10th Std.) is provided. Way Ahead: 1. Child labour is a vicious circle of poverty, unemployment, underemployment and low wages. There should be concerted effort towards social protection programmes and cash transfers to improve the economic situation of families and to reduce the “need” to send children to work 2. There is urgent need to revamp educational infrastructure- to ensure access to educational institutions, improvement in quality and relevance of education 3. There is a need to brig uniformity in existing Indian laws dealing with child labour. The laws must expand the definition of a child by prohibiting the employment of and ensuring free and compulsory education (RTE, Act, 2009) for children below 18 years 4. There is need to launch a national campaign to invoke public interest and large-scale awareness onexploitation of children and the menace of child labour. 5. Government should take adequate measures to raise awareness among families and communities. Parental literacy can play an important role in ensuring the rights of children are upheld. 6. Elimination of child labour demands commitment from the society e.g. family, state, civil society and those who employ children in any enterprises 7. Many NGOs like Bachpan Bachao Andolan, ChildFund, CARE India, Talaash Association, Child Rights and You, Global march against child labour, RIDE India, Child line, Kailash Satyarthi Children Foundation etc. have been working to eradicate child labour in India.

Possible Question For MAINS 1. As per state of world population 2019 of UNFPA life expectancy in India rised from 47 years in 1969 to 69 years in 2019. Write various steps taken by government to improve life expectancy. 2. The absence of reproductive and sexual rights has major and negative repurcussion on women education, income and safety. Do you agree? 3. As per state of world population 2019 of UNFPA , 67 percent of indias population is in the age group of 15 to 64 years of age. Discuss the state of Indian economy to accommodate working age population. GIST TO THE TOPIC Report is given by UNITED NATIONS POPULATION FUND (UNFPA) Also marks 50yrs of the UNFPA being established to support countries to bring down fertility levels. INDIAS population grew at an average of 1.2% annually between 2010 to 2019 which is more than double the annual rate of CHINA. Also marginally higher than the GLOBAL AVERAGE OF 1.1% A YEAR. Around half of INDIAS population in 24 states have achieved the replacement fertility rate of 2.1 childern per women , which is the desired family size when thje population stop growing.

Hong kong issue 1.Do you agree that Hong kong issue is a colonial hangover? 2.How colonization and decolonization of India differ from China? 3. Impact of colonization on Indian culture, society and polity is severe compare to china-Discuss 4.What is opium war? Do you agree that it resulted in cutting of Chinese melon? 5.Compare Chinese boxer movement with revolt of 1857 in India. 6.Protest in Hong kong proved that Chinese concept of one country two system failed – Discuss 7. Analyze the economic impact of Hong kong issue on china. 8.Discuss Indias reaction to Hong kong issue. Write its impact on Indian economy. 9.Compare retake Hong kong movement with umbrella movement 10.Compare may 4th Chinese movement with Indian swadhesi movement. 11.Great personalities decide the course of history. Discuss that in the background of chInese revolution. 12.Analyse Fugitive Offenders Ordinance and the Mutual Legal Assistance in Criminal Matters Ordinance of china. 13.What is greater bay area plan? Write the impact of Hong kong issue on Greater bay area plan of China Possible Mains Question GIST TO THE TOPIC HONG KONG ISSUE has its seed in 2018 HOMICIDE of POON HIU WING IN TAIWAN. HONG KONG and TAIWAN does not have any treaty, since the goverment of CHINA does not recognise the sovereignty of TAIWAN. TO RESOLVE the issue, hong kong Govrement proposed the FUGUTIVE OFFENDERS AND MUTUAL LEGAL ASSITANCES IN CRIMINAL MATTERS (AMENDENT) BILL 2019. The inclusion of mainland china in the amendment is of concern to different sector of socitey. The city Jurisdiction would merge with mainland china which administered by the communist party. The CIVIL HUMAN RIGHTS FRONNT LAUNCHED protest march againt BILL. The PROTEST have been described as separetism riotsfaciliated by foreign forces.

The Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006 – FRA

Under the Indian Forest Act, areas were often declared to be “government forests” without recording who lived in these areas, what uses they made of the forest and so on. The Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006 was enacted to rectify these anomalies.

FRA: Correcting historical injustice

• The FRA provides grants of land to forest dwellers – in situ – to the extent of their present holding but not exceeding four hectares.

• Addition of a category of people termed as Other Traditional Forest Dwellers further extends these rights to others who have been living in forests for generations.

• Gram Sabha has been empowered to take important decisions regarding development.

• Compensation and livelihood opportunities have been ensured by recognising rights of communities over forest resources like forest produce, waterbodies and pastures. The decision to remove bamboo from the category of tree will further help the local economy.

However, concerns have been raised that FRA might adversely affect the environment.

Effect on environment:

• Over the last three decades, habitat fragmentation has been identified as the single largest threat to biodiversity. By granting land to forest dwellers, FRA has set the stage for another round of massive fragmentation. This will also lead to serious human–wildlife conflict.

• Weak procedures prescribed for identifying beneficiaries will be exploited to the hilt by powerful land-grabbers. Many tribal beneficiaries will be short-changed, while mining and logging companies could enter previously protected areas piggy-backing on land given to forest dwellers.


• The act is indeed a progressive step, however, other ways to correct the ‘historical injustice’ meted out to our forest dwellers may be explored. Compensation and livelihood opportunities outside reserves and important corridors through resettlement is a good option. • The huge corpus of funds collected from compulsory levies imposed on mining and developmental projects can be devolved to States specifically for voluntary resettlement projects. • Only then, we will be able to achieve the twin objective of correcting the historical injustice and maintaining our ecosystem.


NOTIFICATION No.126/2019 DATED: 01/07/2019 Date of Notification 01/07/2019 Last date for submission of On-line Applications 31/07/2619 Last date for remittance of fee through Bank 02/08/2019

Applications are invited from eligible candidates ONLY THROUGH

ONLINE MODE ( for direct recruitment to the posts of (i) COMPUTER OPERATOR and (ii) TYPIST in the Madras High Court Service.


1.Computer Operator



A) AGE (as on 01.07.2019)

Minimum | Maximum Age : 18 years 35 years EDUCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL QUALIFICATIONS:

SL. Name of the Post | Educational! and Technical No Qualifications

1. | Computer Any Bachelor degree in Computer Operator Science/ Computer Applications from a recognized University of Indian Union in 10+2+3 or 11+1+3 pattern, or any Bachelor Degree in Science, Arts, Commerce, Engineering, Medicine or any other discipline of a Recognised University in Indian Union, in 10 + 2 + 3 or 11+ 1+ 3 pattern, with a Diploma in Computer Applications from any recognized University or any Institute recognized by the All India Council for Technical Education, and must have passed the Government Technical Examination in Typewriting in English and Tamil by Higher Grade. .

2. Typist a) Any Bachelor Degree in Science, Arts, Commerce, Engineering, Medicine, or any other discipline of a Recognised University in Indian Union, in 10+2+3 or 11+1+3 pattern.

b) Must have passed the Government Technical Examination in Typewriting by the Higher Grade in Tamil and English.

c) Must have passed the Certificate Course in Computer on Office Automation, conducted by the Directorate of Technical Education.


d) SI. No, Category Amount Rs.300/- for each (i) | BC/BCM/ MBC & DC/ Others post SC / SC(A) / ST


The selection of candidates will be based on (a) Written Examination, (b) Skill Test and (c) Oral Test in the following manner:



The Written Examination will consist of 75 multiple choice questions (objective type) in OMR Answer Sheets. Each question will carry one mark. Duration: 90 Minutes. The question paper will consist of:

PART-A: General English (Tamil Nadu State syllabus - SSLC | Minimum

Standard) (For 25 Marks) Qualifying

Marks: 8

PART-B: | General Tamil (Tamil Nadu State syllabus - SSLC | Minimum Standard) (For 15 Marks) Qualifying Marks: 5

(i)General Knowledge, Minimum PART-C: | (ii)Numerical and Mental Ability Degree standard | Qualifying (iii)Analytical and Reasoning Skills Marks: 11

(iv) General Intelligence

(v)Basic knowledge in Computers (in all, for 35 Marks)


The Written Examination will consist of 75 multiple choice questions (objective type) in OMR Answer Sheets. Each question will carry one mark. ‘Duration: 90 minutes. (Minimum qualifying marks: 24).

• (Syllabus: Computer Applications (Diploma Standard): Fundamentals of Computer, Computer organization, Basics of operating system, Word Processor, working with - spreadsheets, working with Power Point, working with access, computer communication, basic trouble shooting, working with external devices etc.)

Geographical Facts about Tamil Nadu

• Tamil Nadu borders with 3 states – Karnataka in northwest, Andhra Pradesh in north, Kerala in West. The Nilgiris and the Anamalai are hill groups with max height.

• The highest peak of Nilgiris is Dodabetta which stands at 2640 m above sea level.

• Western ghat comes on the whole length of western part. The Palghat gap about 25 Km in width is the only marked break in western ghat range. Western ghats in the south of Palghat is known as Anamali range or Elephant Hills.

• Eastern part of Tamil Nadu contains Palani Hills. Famous hill station Kodaikanal is situated on Palani Hills. It is 11th largest state by area and sixth by population.

• Kanchipuram is the largest district of Tamil Nadu by area.

• Chennai is largest by population.

• The major rivers are Kaveri, Palar, Cheyyar, Ponnaiyar, Meyar, Bhavani, Amravati, Vaigal, Chittar and Tamaraparni. The 760 Km long kaveri is the biggest river of this state.

Social and Cultural Facts about Tamil Nadu

• Tamil language is one of the oldest and longest surviving classical languages of world which is still in use in its original form.

• Literacy of Tamil Nadu is 80.3 % which is much higher than national average of 74.04 %. Tamil Nadu is 8th most literate state of India.

• M S Swaminathan who is called as Father of Green Revolution of India belonged to this state.

• Rameshwaram is of extreme religious importance. Ramanathswamy temple, located on Rameswaram island is a temple dedicated to Shiva.

• It is one of the 12 jyotirlingas of Shiva.

• It has a set of corridors which together measure 3,850 feet making it longest corridor in world. Rameshwaram is also one of four pilgrimage centers of Char Dham.

• Other three are Kedarnath, Dwarka and Puri. Bhakti movement started from Tamil Nadu and spread towards north India. Bharat Natyam is the popular traditional dance of state.

• Kolattam, Karagam and Mayilattam are the famous folk dances of this state.

• Pongal is the main festival of this state which is marked with harvest season.

• Jallikattu is the festival of bull fight. Other festivals include Adipperukku, Mahamangam, Mamalapuram etc. Main festivals of Tamil Nadu are Pongal which is a harvest festival.

• Chitirai-Madurai, Adipperukku are other festivals meant for sowing season on banks of river.

• Mahamangam is a fest while Mamalapuram is dance festival.

Differences between the Extremists and Moderates

Moderates used soft means for freedom struggle through petitions, speeches etc. They laid the initial building block of preparation and awakening of people for freedom struggle (during second half of 19th century). Extremists, who took over the leadership of the national movement after the extremists, believed in mass based struggle. Leaders like LalaLajpat Rai, Tilak and BC Pal were in favour of extremism.

The difference between moderates and extremists:

1. Moderates demanded constitutional reform where as extremist favoured extra constitutional means like boycott and passive resistance with Swaraj as primary objective.

2. The moderates were mainly inspired by western liberal thoughts and European history where as extremists were inspired by Indian history, heritage and Hindu traditions.

3. Moderates believed in British political connection with India and expressed loyalty to the crown but the extremists considered Britishers as exploiters and consider loyalty to crown as unworthy.

4. Moderates believed that movement should be limited to middle class intelengesia and felt that masses were not ready for large scale movement. Extremists had huge faith on masses and wanted them to sacrifice for freedom struggle.

Movement leadership of the extremists:

The movement laid by extremist during Bengal partition and Swadeshi during 1905-1908 was a leap forward in freedom struggle. Hitherto the untouched sections like student, women, rural population also participated. The passive resistance and non cooperation trend started because of their new approach. The movement was not confined to political sphere but encompassed art, literature, science and industry also.

Although the differences between moderates and extremists led to split of INC at Surat, they led the foundation for mass awakening and mass struggle in India which was visible during WW1 phase and Gandhian era of freedom struggle. Both groups justifies their approach in their relative era because extremist of today will be moderates of tomorrow was rightly analysed by Tilak.

Historical Facts about Tamil Nadu:

• Sangam Period is the glorious pride and rich cultural heritage of ancient south India spanning the present region of Tamil Nadu and parts of Kerala, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.

• Sangam period corresponds to 3rd century BC to 3rd century AD.

• The literature works developed in the Sangam Period is called as Sangam Literature. Sangam literature is considered as set of thousands of poems developed by hundreds of contemporary poets many of whom are still unknown.

• Ancient Tamil history is marked by the kingdoms of Chera, Chola and Pandya. Sangam literature is known to flourish under the patronage of these kingdoms.

• The medieval period of Tamil Nadu is marked by Pallav Dynasty under Mahendravarman who ruled Tamil Nadu with Kanchipuram as their capital from 4th to 8th century.

• Pallavs were later replaced by Chola dynasty in 9th century. Chola dynasty was in-turn replaced by Pandyan dynasty in 13th century.

• The last phase of medieval Tamil history witnessed the rising of a rich, powerful and extremely prosperous hindu empire called Vijaynagar empire (1336-1646) established by Harihar and Bukka Rai. Vijaynagar kingdom ruled with a glorious heritage for two centuries and is also called as the richest empire ever of Indian history.

• Vijaynagar kingdom came to end after defeat from Deccan sultanates in Battle of Talikota in 1565.

• During British period Tamil Nadu was called as Madras presidency. After Indian independence Madras presidency was renamed as Madras state.

• Madras state comprised of the present areas of Tamil Nadu including parts of karnataka, kerala and coastal Andhra.

• After State Reorganization Act of 1956, many regions of Madras state were separated out. Tamil Nadu state eventually came to existence on 14 Jan 1969.

• The legislative council was abolished in 1986 and Tamil Nadu became unicameral state.

National Policy on Software Product 2019

• National Policy on Software Product 2019 is a basic roadmap for formulation of initiatives, schemes and other measures for the development of software products sector in India


• It involves an initial outlay of Rs.1500 crore for various schemes till 2025.

• Software Product Development Fund: of Rs 5000 crore with contribution from private sector to promote emerging technologies such as Internet of Things, Artificial Intelligence, Blockchain, Big Data and robotics.

• Research & Innovation fund

Five Main Missions:

• Increase share in global software products market

• Create Indian Software products Industry of $ 70-80 billion at a Compounded Annual Growth Rate of 40% by 2025.

• Increase India’s share in global software product market by ten times.

• Develop Software Product Eco-system

• Nurturing of 10,000 technology start-ups in software product industry, including 1,000 in tier-II and tier-III towns.

• Cluster-based innovation driven ecosystem by developing 20 sectoral and strategically located software product development clusters

• Employment Generation

• It aims create direct & indirect employment for 3.5 million people by 2025.

• Talent Pool Creation

• Skilling of 10 lakh IT professionals.

• Developing 10,000 leadership professionals.

• National Software Products Mission

• Aimed at monitoring and evaluating scheme & programmes with participation from Government, Academia and Industry.


• Boost export income

• Create employment and entrepreneurial opportunities

• Leverage opportunities available under the Digital India Programme leading inclusive and sustainable growth.

IDBI Assistant Manager Notification 2019

The Industrial Development Bank of India (IDBI) has Released Notification for the post of 600 Assistant Manager. Applications are invited from eligible Candidates. Candidates can apply through online on 23.06.2019 to 03.07.2019.

IDBI Bank Assistant Manager Vacancy Details:

Name of the post: Assistant Manager

Total Vacancies: 600 Vacancies

Age Limit: Candidates applying for this role must be Minimum 21 years to Maximum 28 years as on 01-06-2019.

Education Qualification: Candidates must have completed B.E/B.Tech/Any Graduation from a Recognized University. (For more details Candidates can refer the Official Notification).

Pay Scale: 23700 /- per month

Selection Process: Online Test, Interview

Application Fee:

For SC/ST Candidates: Rs. 150/- (Intimation charges only)

For all others Candidates: Rs. 700/- (Application fee + Intimation charges)

Apply Mode: Online

Payment Mode: Online

How to Apply: Candidates can apply through Official website: before on03.07.2019

Important dates:

Starting Date of Apply Online23.06.2019

Last Date of Apply Online03.07.2019

Date of Online Test(Tentative)21.07.2019

Electronic Intelligence Satellite, PSLV-C45 Mission

Headline : PSLV to launch military’s eye in the sky

Details :

The News:

• ISRO will launch India’s first electronic intelligence satellite, EMISAT onboard PSLV-C45.

PSLV-C45 Mission

• PSLV-C45 mission, for the first time, will launch satellites in 3 different orbits

1. EMISAT, electronic intelligence satellite in the low earth orbit, 749 km above the surface of the earth.

2. 28 foreign satellites in the lower orbit of 504 km for USA, Lithuania, Spain and Switzerland. 3. The PSLV PS-4, the 4th stage of the rocket, will be launched as orbital platform at a height of 485 km to provide a microgravity environment for research organisations and academic institutes to perform experiments. for the following experimental satellites:

• • ARIS (Advanced Retarding Potential Analyzer for Ionospheric Studies) satellite of Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology to study the structure and composition of ionosphere

• Automatic Identification System (AIS) for Maritime satellite applications from ISRO

• Amateur radio applications satellite ARPS (Automatic Packet Repeating System) from AMSAT (Radio Amateur Satellite Corporation) India

• Besides, PSLV-C45 is the first mission that is using the QL variant of PSLV rocket launcher to launch satellites in 3 different orbits.


• EMISAT is an electronic intelligence satellite based on ISRO’s Indian Mini Satellite -2 (IMS-2) bus platform.

• The 435-kg EMISAT was developed under project KAUTILYA of Defence Electronics Research Laboratory of DRDO.

• It is basically designed to intercept signals from enemy radars in order to develop effective jamming techniques to counter the enemy radar.

• It will be launched in a highly elliptical orbit to maximize the dwell time over specific signal recording area.


• Satellite-based electronic intelligence will augment the armed forces to counter radars.

• Electronic Intelligence basically involves interception of signals from radars.

• Once the signal is intercepted, the ELINT system collects data related to radar signals including its bandwidth, intensity, location from where it is emitted etc creating what is called a RF signature. (Radio frequency)

• Once the RF signature is created it can be used for locating and identifying the radar in subsequent encounters.

• It can also help in developing appropriate jamming techniques to counter the enemy radar

What is Artificial Intelligence (AI)?

• To make it simple – Artificial Intelligence is intelligence exhibited by machines.

• It is a branch of computer science which deals with creating computers or machines as intelligent as human beings.

• The term was coined in 1956 by John McCarthy at the Dartmouth conference, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

• It is a simulation of human intelligence processes such as learning (the acquisition of information and rules for using the information), reasoning (using the rules to reach approximate or definite conclusions), and self-correction by machines, especially computer systems.

• Nowadays it has become an umbrella term which encompasses everything from robotic process automation to actual robotics.

• Recently it has become widely popular and gained prominence due to its multifaceted application ranging from healthcare to military devices.

Is it possible for a computer to become completely Artificially Intelligent?

• Work is being done in this arena however except some instances of computers playing games faster than the best human players no success has been achieved.

• For Example: In May 1997, an IBM super-computer called Deep Blue defeated world chess champion Gary Kasparov in a chess match.

Another recent example of 2016 is, AlphaGo, a program driven by Google’s DeepMind AI, has won Korean Lee Sedol, one of Go’s most dominant players.

What is the philosophy and ethics of Artificial Intelligence?

• The research and development of AI started with the intention of creating intelligence in machines that we find and regard high in humans. Thus answering the big question which is can machines think and behave like humans do?

Three main philosophical questions related to Artificial Intelligence

• Are they dangerous to humanity? How can we ensure that machines behave ethically and that they are used ethically?

• Is artificial general intelligence probable? Can a machine decipher any problem that a human being can solve using intelligence? Or are there hard boundaries to what a machine can accomplish?

• Is it possible for machines to have a mind, consciousness, and mental states in exactly the same sense that human beings do? Can a machine be sentient, and thus deserve certain rights? Can a machine intentionally cause harm?

Examples of Artificially Intelligent Technologies

Robotic process automation: Automation is the process of making a system or processes function automatically. Robots can be programmed to perform high-volume, repeatable tasks normally performed by humans and further it is different from IT automation because of its agility and adaptability to the changing circumstances.

Natural language processing (NLP) is the processing of human language and not computer language by a computer program. For Example, spam detection, which looks at the subject line and the text of an email and decides if it’s junk.

Pattern recognition is a branch of machine learning that focuses on identifying patterns in data.

Machine vision is the science of making computers visualize by capturing and analyzing visual information using a camera, analog-to-digital conversion, and digital signal processing. It is often compared to human eyesight, but machine vision isn’t bound by biology and can be programmed to see through walls. It is used in a range of applications from signature identification to medical image analysis.

Machine learning: Field of study that gives computers the ability to learn without being explicitly programmed. Deep learning is a subset of machine learning and can be thought of as the automation of predictive analytics.

Robotics is a field of engineering focused on the design and manufacturing of robots. Robots are often used to perform tasks that are difficult for humans to perform or perform consistently.

Applications of Artificial Intelligence (AI)

Healthcare Sector: Machine learning is being used for faster, cheaper and more accurate diagnosis and thus improving patient outcomes and reducing costs. For Example, IBM Watson and chatbots are some of such tools.

Business Sector: To take care of highly repetitive tasks Robotic process automation is applied which perform faster and effortlessly than humans. Further, Machine learning algorithms are being integrated into analytics and CRM platforms to provide better customer service. Chatbots being used into the websites to provide immediate service to customers. Automation of job positions has also become a talking point among academics and IT consultancies such as Gartner and Forrester.

Education Sector: AI can make some of the educational processes automated such as grading, rewarding marks etc. therefore giving educators more time. Further, it can assess students and adapt to their needs, helping them work at their own pace. AI may change where and how students learn, perhaps even replacing some teachers.

Financial Sector: It can be applied to the personal finance applications and could collect personal data and provide financial advice. In fact, today software trades more than humans on the Wall Street.

• Legal Sector: Automation can lead to faster resolution of already pending cases by reducing the time taken while analyzing cases thus better use of time and more efficient processes.

Manufacturing sector: Robots are being used for manufacturing since a long time now, however, more advanced exponential technologies have emerged such as additive manufacturing (3D Printing) which with the help of AI can revolutionize the entire manufacturing supply chain ecosystem.

Intelligent Robots − Robots can perform the tasks given by a human because of sensors to detect physical data from the real world such as light, heat, temperature, movement, sound, bump, and pressure. Moreover, they have efficient processors, multiple sensors and huge memory, to exhibit intelligence. Further, they are capable of learning from their errors and therefore can adapt to the new environment.

Gaming – AI has a crucial role in strategic games such as chess, poker, tic-tac-toe, etc., where the machine can think of a large number of possible positions based on heuristic knowledge.

Speech Recognition – There are intelligent systems that are capable of hearing and grasping the language in terms of sentences and their meanings while human talks to it. It can handle different accents, slang words, noise in the background, change in human’s noise due to cold, etc.

Cyber Security: In the 20th conference on e-governance in India it was discussed that AI can provide more teeth to cyber security and must be explored.

What are the downsides and risks of Artificial Intelligence (AI)?

The decrease in demand for human labour due to machines and intelligent robots taking over the jobs in the manufacturing and the services sectors. For Example: In china some customs officers are now robots, In japan robots as housemaid is emerging trend.

Existential risks: Stephen Hawkins has once said “The development of full artificial intelligence could spell the end of the human race. Once humans develop artificial intelligence, it will take off on its own and redesign itself at an ever-increasing rate. Humans, who are limited by slow biological evolution, couldn’t compete and would be superseded”. • AI technologies falling into terrorist hands may unleash modern terror network including machine and therefore vulnerability of humans may magnify.

• It may lead to moral degradation in society due to decreased human to human interactions.

• In such an era of rapid and disruptive changes, many questions arise: will these technological changes be accompanied by equally profound economic, social and cultural changes? Will technology destroy jobs at a faster rate than the rate of creation of jobs? Will future governments be forced to fork out Universal Basic Income? How could education be redefined with artificial intelligence, big data, augmented reality and personalized learning pathways? Are conventional manufacturing plants under threat with the advent of additive manufacturing? What will be the impact on skills required? After all these changes, people-to-people communication and socio-economic activities remain the same?

Possible areas for AI applications in Indian conditions

• It can complement Digital India Mission by helping in the big data analysis which is not possible without using AI.

• Targeted delivery of services, schemes, and subsidy can be further fine-tuned.

• Smart border surveillance and monitoring to enhance security infrastructure.

• Weather forecasting models may become proactive and therefore preplanning for any future mishaps such as floods, droughts and therefore addressing the farming crisis, farmer’s suicide, crop losses etc. • By analyzing big data of road safety data and NCRB (National Crime Record Bureau) data for crimes, new policies can be formulated.

• Disaster management can be faster and more accessible with the help of robots and intelligent machines.

• In the counterinsurgency and patrolling operations, we often hear the loss of CRPF jawans which can be minimized by using the robotic army and lesser human personnel.

• AI can be used to automate government processes, therefore, minimizing human interactions and maximizing transparency and accountability.

• It can be applied to study ancient literature upon medicines and therefore help in modernizing the health care with the juxtaposition of modern machines and ancient techniques.

• In the remotest areas where the last leg of governance is almost broken, AI can do the job. For Example: in the tribal areas and the hilly areas of the northeast.

Which is the nodal organization of the government for the research work on Artificial Intelligence (AI)?

• Centre for artificial intelligence and robotics (CAIR), is the primary laboratory of DRDO for research and development in different areas of defense, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and is located in Bangalore. It is involved in the Research & Development of high-quality Secure Communication, Command, and Control, and Intelligent Systems.

• CAIR came into existence in 1986. • Projects: NETRA- software to intercept online communication, SECOS- Secure operating system.

What are the challenges India’s Artificial Intelligence Development is facing?

• AI-based applications are mostly driven largely by the private sector and have been focused largely on consumer goods. • Public-private funding model which is a success in the United States, China, South Korea, and elsewhere may be considered good for India. Presently it is not present in India.

• Our educational system is not updated to the modern technologies and is outdated in today’s economic environment as the nature of jobs shifts rapidly and skills become valuable and obsolete in a matter of years. • The debate of poverty vs. technology and where to spend the most is more likely to persist until the political class takes a higher interest in real issues than trivial ones.


Why in news?

A Constitution Bench of the Supreme Court, led by Chief Justice of India by a 4:1 majority upheld the validity of Aadhaar but with certain caveats IN 2018.

What is Aadhaar?

• 12 digit biometric-based individual identification number managed by Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) under Ministry of Communications/IT. The Aadhaar (Targeted Delivery of Financial and Other Subsidies, Benefits and Services) Act, 2016 establishes Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI), Prior to the enactment of the Act, the UIDAI had functioned, since 28 January 2009, as an attached office of the Planning Commission (now NITI Aayog). following are key functions of UIDAI–

o Specifying demographic and biometric information to be collected during enrolment

o Assigning Aadhaar numbers to individuals

o Authenticating Aadhaar numbers

o Specifying the usage of Aadhaar numbers for delivery of subsidies and services

• Proof of identity, proof of residence and now also financial address for its residents.

• Any Resident can get Aadhaar. However, it is not a proof of citizenship.

• Information collected for enrolment in Aadhaar Database

o Demographic information such as Name, Date of Birth, Gender, Address, Parent/Guardian details, Contact details (phone, e-mail etc).

o Biometric Information required: Photo, 10 Finger Prints, Iris.

• The Aadhaar number, the demographic and biometric information (called identity information) is together stored in the Central Identities Data Repository as mandated by the Aadhaar (Targeted Delivery of Financial and Other Subsidies, Benefits and Services) Act, 2017.

• Expenditure for the nationwide Aadhaar exercise is incurred from the Consolidated Fund of India.

Highlights of the Verdict

• Constitutionality of Aadhaar: Aadhaar scheme passed the triple test laid down in the Puttaswamy (Privacy) judgment 2017 to determine the reasonableness of the invasion of privacy (under Art 21) i.e.

o Existence of a law - backed by the statute

i.e. the Aadhaar Act, 2016.

o A legitimate state interest – ensuring social benefit schemes to reach the deserving and poor.

o Test of proportionality - balances benefits of Aadhaar and the potential threat it carries to the fundamental right to privacy.

• No fear of Surveillance state: Provisions of the Aadhaar Act “do not tend to create a surveillance state”.

o Aadhaar collects minimal biometric data in the form of iris and fingerprints, and the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) — which oversees the Aadhaar enrolment exercise — does not collect purpose, location or details of the transaction.

• Security of the biometric data: UIDAI has mandated only registered devices to conduct biometric-based authentication transactions.

o There is an encrypted, unidirectional relationship between the host application and the UIDAI. This rules out any possibility of the use of stored biometric, or the replay of biometrics captured from another source.

o Further, as per the regulations, authentication agencies are not allowed to store the biometrics captured for Aadhaar authentication.

• Linking of Aadhaar with Financial transactions: The rules which made linking of bank accounts and all other financial instruments with Aadhaar mandatory, is declared unconstitutional.

• Aadhaar Act as Money Bill: Section 7 being the main provision of the Act, the Supreme Court has upheld the validity of the Aadhaar Act being passed as a Money Bill.

o Section 7 of the Aadhaar Act, demands for Aadhaar based authentication to receive a subsidy, benefit or service etc. It is very clearly declared in this provision that the expenditure incurred in respect of such a subsidy, benefit or service would be from the Consolidated Fund of India.

• On a similar issue, the court has upheld the validity of Section 59 that also validates all Aadhaar enrolment done prior to the enactment of the Aadhaar Act, 2016. The court has said that since enrolment was voluntary in nature, those who specifically refuse to give consent would be allowed to exit the Aadhaar scheme.

Sections Declared Unconstitutional by Supreme court

Section 33(1)&Section 33(2)

Violated the protection against self- incrimination as enshrined under Article 20(3) of the Constitution of India. Did not given an opportunity of hearing to the concerned individual whose information is sought to be released by the UIDAI pursuant to the Court’s order. This is contrary to theprinciples of natural justice.

Section 47

Did not allow an individual citizen, whose rights have been violated under the Act, to initiate the criminal process. Only UIDAI was allowed. Any individual will now be allowed to file a complaint if he/she feels their data has been compromised.

Section 48

Permitted the central government to take over UIDAI in case of a ‘public emergency’.Termed as vague & arbitrary in absence of any holistic definition of ‘public emergency’.

Section 57

Allowed an unrestricted extension of the Aadhaar platform to users who may be Government agencies or private sector operators.Gave the Act much wider scope than what may legitimately be considered as a Money Bill.Enabled the seeding of the Aadhaar number across service providers and thereby enabled the establishment of a surveillance state.Allowing corporate bodies and individuals to also seek authentication– only on the basis of a contract & not a law - would impinge upon anindividual’s right to privacy.

Aadhaar Regulations

Regulation 26(c) allowed UIDAI to store metadata relating to transactions. Struck down in present


In 1999 after the Kargil war, the Kargil Review Committee, headed by security analyst K. Subrahmanyam, was formed to study the state of national security. It submitted its report to the then Prime Minister, Atal Bihari Vajpayee, on 7 January 2000. Among its various recommendations was the proposal that citizens in villages in border regions be issued identity cards on a priority basis, with such ID cards issued later to all people living in border states.

The Rangarajan Commission set up to revamp the statistical system in India in 2000 recommended under the Socio-economic statistics chapter the setting up of a centralized database of citizens in India. The Commission in its analysis noted under para 9.2.26 as "9.2.26 Many developed countries and an increasing number of developing countries, including China, have databases of their citizens while also providing for each adult individual citizen of the country a unique identification number.

A Group of Ministers (GoM), headed by L. K. Advani, was formed to study the recommendations and examine possible implementation. The GoM submitted its report in May 2001 in which it accepted the recommendation for an ID card and stated that a "multi-purpose National Identity Card" project would be started soon, with the card to be issued first in border villages and then elsewhere.

In late September 2001 the Ministry of External Affairs proposed that a mandatory national identity card be issued. This announcement followed reports that some people had obtained multiple Indian passports with different details. This was attributed to the lack of computerisation between the passport centres.

In December 2003 the Citizenship (Amendment) Bill 2003 was introduced in the Lok Sabha by L. K. Advani. It primarily aimed to provide various rights to persons of Indian origin, but the bill also introduced Clause 14 (a) that said: "The Central Government may compulsorily register every citizen of India and issue national identity card to him."


The UIDAI was established on 28 January 2009 after the Planning Commission issued a notification. On 23 June Nandan Nilekani, the co-founder of Infosys, was appointed by the then-government, UPA, to head the project. He was given the newly created position of Chairman of the UIDAI, which was equivalent in rank to a Cabinet minister. In April 2010 the logo and the brand name Aadhaar was launched by Nilekani.

On 26 November 2012 Prime Minister Manmohan Singh launched an Aadhaar-linked direct benefit transfer scheme. The project aimed to eliminate leakages in the system by directly transferring the money to the bank account of the recipient. The project was to be introduced in 51 districts on 1 January 2013 and then slowly expanded to cover all of India.

On 9 October 2013 the National Payments Corporation of India launched an Aadhaar-based remittance system. Using the system, funds could be transferred to any Aadhaar-linked bank accounts if the Aadhaar number was known.

On 5 July 2015, finding the experience with DBT scheme in LPG "very encouraging", with a reported savings of ₹127 billion (US$1.8 billion) to the public exchequer this year.

In March 2015 the Aadhaar-linked DigiLocker service was launched, using which Aadhaar-holders can scan and save their documents on the cloud, and can share them with the government officials whenever required without any need to carry them.

1. The Aadhaar and other Laws (Amendment) Ordinance, 2019

The Aadhaar and other Laws (Amendment) Ordinance, 2019 Ministry: Law and Justice • Promulgated Mar 02, 2019 • The Aadhaar and Other Laws (Amendment) Ordinance, 2019 was promulgated on March 2, 2019. It amends the Aadhaar (Targeted Delivery of Financial and Other Subsidies, Benefits and Services) Act, 2016, the Indian Telegraph Act, 1885, and the Prevention of Money Laundering Act, 2002. The Aadhaar Act provides targeted delivery of subsidies and benefits to individuals residing in India by assigning them unique identity numbers, called Aadhaar numbers. Previously, a similar Bill was passed by Lok Sabha on January 4, 2019. However, it will lapse with the dissolution of the 16th Lok Sabha.

Offline verification of Aadhaar number holder:

Under the Aadhaar Act, an individual’s identity may be verified by Aadhaar ‘authentication’. Authentication involves submitting the Aadhaar number, and their biometric or demographic information to the Central Identities Data Repository for verification. The Ordinance additionally allows ‘offline verification’ of an individual’s identity, without authentication, through modes specified by the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) by regulations.

• During offline verification, the agency must (i) obtain the consent of the individual, (ii) inform them of alternatives to sharing information, and (iii) not collect, use or store Aadhaar number or biometric information.

Voluntary use:

The Act provides for the use of Aadhaar number as proof of identity of a person, subject to authentication. The Ordinance replaces this provision to state that an individual may voluntarily use his Aadhaar number to establish his identity, by authentication or offline verification. The Ordinance states that authentication of an individual’s identity via Aadhaar, for the provision of any service, may be made mandatory only by a law of Parliament.

• The Ordinance amends the Telegraph Act, 1885 and the Prevention of Money Laundering Act, 2002 to state that persons with a license to maintain a telegraph, banking companies and financial institutions may verify the identity of their clients by: (i) authentication or offline verification of Aadhaar, (ii) passport, or (iii) any other documents notified by the central government. The client has the choice to use either mode to verify his identity and no person shall be denied any service for not having an Aadhaar number.

Entities using Aadhaar:

Under the Act, usage of Aadhaar number for establishing the identity of an individual, by the State or a body corporate under any law, is permitted. The Ordinance removes this provision. An entity may be allowed to perform authentication through Aadhaar, if the UIDAI is satisfied that it is: (i) compliant with certain standards of privacy and security, or (ii) permitted by law, or (iii) seeking authentication for a purpose specified by the central government in the interest of the State.

Aadhaar number of children:

The Ordinance specifies that at the time of enrolling a child to obtain an Aadhaar number, the enrolling agency shall seek the consent of his parent or guardian. The agency must inform the parent or guardian of the manner in which the information will be used, the recipients with whom it will be shared, and of their right to access the information. After attaining eighteen years of age, the child may apply for cancellation of his Aadhaar.

Disclosure of information in certain cases:

Under the Act, restrictions on security and confidentiality of Aadhaar related information do not apply in case the disclosure is pursuant to an order of a District Court (or above). The Ordinanceamends this to allow such disclosure only for orders by High Courts (or above).

• Further, under the Act, an officer not below the rank of a Joint Secretary may issue directions for disclosing information in the interest of national security. The Ordinance amends this to allow such disclosure on directions of officers not below the rank of a Secretary.


Under the Act, all fees and revenue collected by the UIDAI will be credited to the Consolidated Fund of India. The Ordinance removes this provision, and creates the Unique Identification Authority of India Fund. All fees, grants, and charges received by the UIDAI shall be credited to this fund. The fund shall be used for expenses of the UIDAI, including salaries and allowances of its employees.


Under the Act, courts can take cognizance of an offence only if the UIDAI registers a complaint. TheOrdinance amends this to allow the individual to register complaints in certain cases, including impersonation or disclosure of their identity.

• The Ordinance defines the Aadhaar ecosystem to include enrolling agencies, requesting agencies, and offline verification-seeking entities. It allows the UIDAI to issue directions to them if necessary for the discharge of its functions under the Act.


Under the Ordinance, the UIDAI may initiate a complaint against an entity in the Aadhaar ecosystem for failure to (i) comply with the Act or the UIDAI’s directions, and (ii) furnish information required by the UIDAI. Adjudicating Officers appointed by the UIDAI shall decide such matters, and may impose penalties up to one crore rupees on such entities. The Telecom Disputes Settlement and Appellate Tribunal shall be the appellate authority against decisions of the Adjudicating Officer.


Why in news?

Recently, the Madhya Pradesh Government invoked the National Security Act (NSA) against three men accused of killing a cow.

About National Security Act, 1980

• The National Security Act was promulgated on September 23, 1980, "to provide for preventive detention in certain cases and for matters connected therewith".

• The grounds for preventive detention of a person include:

o Acting in any manner prejudicial to the defence of India, the relations of India with foreign powers, or the security of India.

o Regulating the continued presence of any foreigner in India or with a view to making arrangements for his expulsion from India

o Acting in any manner prejudicial to the security of the State or from acting in any manner prejudicial to the maintenance of public order or from acting in any manner prejudicial to the maintenance of supplies and services essential to the community it is necessary so to do.

• A detenu may be held for up to three months and in certain circumstances six months, without any review.

• A three person Advisory Board made up of high court judges or persons qualified to be high court judges determines the legitimacy of any order made for longer than three months. If approved, a person may be held extra-judicially for up to 12 months. The term can be extended if the government finds fresh evidence.

• The state government needs to be intimated that a person has been detained under the NSA.

• It extends to the whole of India except the State of Jammu and Kashmir.

Reasons for failure of the Act:

• A striking feature of the Act is that the government can detain a person for as long as it wishes to. This is made possible by the powers of the government to continue to detain a person even after the expiry or revocation of the original detention order on the plea that fresh grounds of detention have arisen. • First, there are the detentions that are based on political or ideological differences. This goes against the basic spirit of the Indian Constitution. Though the courts have generally overturned such detentions but this was not before the political prisoner has spent many months in prison.

• Second, there is the detention of suspected criminals for acts that can properly be dealt with by the ordinary criminal law. Although this type of abuse receives little or no publicity, it has been widespread since the NSA was passed in 1980.

Possible solutions:

Given that India occasionally staggers through spasmodic bouts of violence and disorder, it is possible that very narrowly tailored preventive detention laws with stringent judicial controls could be appropriate to counter such threats, at least in times of particular unrest.

Increasing the accountability of the governmental authorities, Tailoring the law more narrowly to the truly serious threats to India’s security, and Refining the language of the NSA so as to make it less vague and, therefore, less susceptible to abuses and creative interpretations from executive authorities, are fundamental if abuses are to be checked.

In the state of Jammu and Kashmir, the more stringent preventive detention law, the Jammu and Kashmir Public Safety Act, which was passed in 1978, covers while in North East India, the Armed Forces Special Powers Act operates.

• Article 22 grants protection to persons who are arrested or detained under a preventive detention law.

• This protection is available to both citizens as well as aliens and includes the following:

o The detention of a person cannot exceed three months unless an advisory board reports sufficient cause for extended detention. The board is to consist of judges of a high court.

o The grounds of detention should be communicated to the detenu. However, the facts considered to be against the public interest need not be disclosed.

o The detenu should be afforded an opportunity to make a representation against the detention order.

• Article 22 also authorises the Parliament to prescribe o the circumstances and the classes of cases in which a person can be detained for more than three months under a preventive detention law without obtaining the opinion of an advisory board;

o the maximum period for which a person can be detained in any classes of cases under a preventive detention law; and o the procedure to be followed by an advisory board in an inquiry.

• The Parliament has exclusive authority to make a law of preventive detention for reasons connected with defence, foreign affairs and the security of India.

Both the Parliament as well as the state legislatures can concurrently make a law of preventive detention for reasons connected with the security of a state, the maintenance of public order and the maintenance of supplies and services essential to the community.

• Pre-independence laws- Bengal Regulation III of 1818, Defence of India Act 1915, Rowlatt Acts of 1919

• Post-independence laws-

o Preventive Detention Act (1950-1969)

o Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act (1967)

o Maintenance of Internal Security Act (MISA) (1971- 1978)

o Conservation of Foreign exchange and Prevention of Smuggling Activities (COFEPOSA) (1974)

• o National Security Act (1980)- amended in 1984, 1985 and 1988

• the Criminal Law Amendment Act,

• the Official Secrets Act, 1923,

• Chapters 6 and 7 of the Indian Penal Code etc.

• The only period in the Indian “republic without any preventive

detention law was the three year period, beginning with the repeal of MISA in 1977 to the promulgation of the NSA in 1980.


Why in news?

The CM of Telangana has pitched for more autonomy to the states, suggesting that the concurrent list be done away with.

Why Concurrent list?

• The aim of the concurrent list was to ensure uniformity across the country where independently both centre and state can legislate. Thus, a model law with enough flexibility for states was originally conceived in the constitution.

• Also, few concurrent list subjects required huge finances needing both centre and state to contribute.

Seventh Schedule (Article 246)

The Constitution provides a scheme for demarcation of powers through three ‘lists’ in the seventh schedule.

• The union list details the subjects on which Parliament may make laws e.g. defence, foreign affairs, railways, banking, among others.

• The state list details those under the purview of state legislatures e.g. Public order, police, public health and sanitation; hospitals and dispensaries, betting and gambling etc.

• The concurrent list has subjects in which both Parliament and state legislatures have jurisdiction e.g. Education including technical education, medical education and universities, population control and family planning, criminal law, prevention of cruelty to animals, protection of wildlife and animals, forests etc.

o The provision of concurrent list is a feature borrowed from the Australian constitution.

• The Constitution also provides federal supremacy to Parliament on concurrent list items i.e. in case of a conflict; a central law will override a state law.

o But there is an exception. If the state law has been reserved for the consideration of the President and has received his assent, then the state law prevails in the state. But it would still be competent for the Parliament to override such a law by subsequently making a law on the same matter.

• Since 1950, the Seventh Schedule of the Constitution has seen a number of amendments. The Union List and Concurrent List have grown while subjects under the State List have gradually reduced.

• The 42nd Amendment Act implemented in 1976, restructured the Seventh Schedule ensuring that State List subjects like education, forest, protection of wild animals and birds, administration of justice, and weights and measurements were transferred to the Concurrent List.

Sarkaria Commission Recommendation on Concurrent List (NOTE: useful for eliminating options)

• The residuary powers of taxation should continue to remain with the Parliament, while the other residuary powers should be placed in the Concurrent List.

• The Centre should consult the states before making a law on a subject of the Concurrent List.

• Ordinarily, the Union should occupy only that much field of a concurrent subject on which uniformity of policy and action is essential in the larger interest of the nation, leaving the rest and details for state action.

The Tamil Nadu government constituted the PV Rajamannar Committee to look into Centre-State relations. It spurred other states to voice their opposition to this new power relation born due to 42nd amendment act and Centre’s encroachment on subjects that were historically under the state list.

Punchi commission

There should be a mechanism whereby the centre consults states before introducing a bill on concurrent list items. This consultation mechanism should be through inter-state council. Centre should occupy only that much of subjects in concurrent list or any other overlapping jurisdiction which is absolutely needed to achieve uniformity of policy in national interest.

Like-Minded Megadiverse Countries

The like-minded Megadiverse Countries (LMMC) is a group of countries that harbor the majority of the Earth's species and are therefore considered extremely biodiverse.
They are rich in biological diversity (60-70% of the world’s Biodiversity) and associated traditional knowledge. Conservation International identified 17 megadiverse countries in 1998. All are located in, or partially in, the tropics.

The current members of LMMC are:

Bolivia, Brazil, Canada,China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ecuador, Guatemala,India, Indonesia, Iran,Kenya, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mexico, Peru, Philippines, South Africa, USA, Venezuela.


The principle criterion is endemism, first at the species level and then at higher taxonomic levels such as genus and family. To qualify as a Megadiverse country, a country must
1) Have at least 5000 of the world’s plants as endemics.

2) Have marine ecosystems within its borders.

While there is no specific management associated with this concept, 17 countries rich in biological diversity and associated traditional knowledge have formed a group known as the Like Minded Megadiverse Countries. This group was formed in 2002 in Mexican city Cancun to act as a mechanism of cooperation on the conservation of biological diversity and traditional knowledge.


President Ram Nath Kovind on Thursday dismissed a petition to disqualify 27 Aam Aadmi Party (AAP) members of the Delhi legislative assembly for allegedly holding offices of profit after being appointed as chairpersons of Rogi Kalyan Samitis (patient welfare committees) attached to various city hospitals. The decision, based on a recommendation by the Election Commission of India (EC), comes as a moral boost to the ruling AAP government. Rogi Kalyan Samiti (Patient Welfare Committee) / Hospital Management Committee is a simple yet effective management structure. This committee, a registered society, acts as a group of trustees for the hospitals to manage the affairs of the hospital. It consists of members from local Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs), NGOs, local elected representatives and officials from Government sector who are responsible for proper functioning and management of the hospital / Community Health Centre / FRUs. RKS / HMS is free to prescribe, generate and use the funds with it as per its best judgement for smooth functioning and maintaining the quality of services. The commission in its recommendation said that the position comes under the exempted category. “...It is observed that the office of chairperson in Rogi Kalyan Samiti in hospitals of GNCTD (government of national capital territory of Delhi) falls under the exempted category as per item 14 of the Schedule of the Delhi Members of Legislative Assembly (Removal of Disqualification) Act-1997 and therefore this commission opines that the respondents are not disqualified for holding office of profit," the commission said in its opinion dated 10 July.

What is Office of Profit?

• Articles 102(1) and 191 (1) mention disqualifications on the basis of Office of Profit in the Parliament and state legislature respectively. Under article 102 (1) a person shall be disqualified for being chosen as and for being a member of the Parliament if:

o he holds any office of profit under the Union or state government (except that of a minister or any other office exempted by state legislature),

o he is of unsound mind and stands so declared by a court,

o he is an undischarged insolvent,

o he is not a citizen of India or has voluntarily acquired the citizenship of a foreign state or is under any acknowledgement of allegiance to a foreign state, and

o if he is so disqualified under any law made by Parliament.

• Article 191 (1) provides similar disqualifications for the members of the state legislative assemblies and councils.

• According to Article 192, on the question whether a member has become subject to any of the above disqualifications, the governor’s decision is final. However, he should obtain the opinion of the Election Commission and act accordingly.

• The recommendations of ECI are binding on the President or Governor regarding the issues related to article 102 (1) & article 191 (1).

• The Parliament has prescribed a number of additional disqualifications in the Representation of People Act (1951). These are similar to those for Parliament. These are mentioned here:

o He must not have been found guilty of certain election offences or corrupt practices in the elections.

o He must not have been convicted for any offence resulting in imprisonment for two or more years. But, the detention of a person under a preventive detention law is not a disqualification.

o He must not have failed to lodge an account of his election expenses within the time.

o He must not have any interest in government contracts, works or services.

o He must not be a director or managing agent nor hold an office of profit in a corporation in which the government has at least 25 per cent share.

o He must not have been dismissed from government service for corruption or disloyalty to the state.

o He must not have been convicted for promoting enmity between different groups or for the offence of bribery.

o He must not have been punished for preaching and practicing social crimes such as untouchability, dowry and sati.

Disqualification on Ground of Defection • The Constitution also lays down that a person shall be disqualified for being a member of either House of state legislature (Article 191(2)) and Parliament (Article 102 (2)) if he is so disqualified on the ground of defection under the provisions of the Tenth Schedule.

• The question of disqualification under the Tenth Schedule is decided by the Presiding officer of the house (Speaker in case of Lok Sabha and Chairman in case of Rajya Sabha).

• In 1992, the Supreme Court ruled that the decision of Chairman/Speaker in this regard is subject to judicial review.

• But it is neither defined in the constitution nor under Representation of People’s Act.

• Supreme Court in Pradyut Bordoloi vs Swapan Roy (2001), the Supreme Court outlined the following questions for the test for office of Profit:

o Whether the government makes the appointment;

o Whether the government has the right to remove or dismiss the holder;

o Whether the government pays the remuneration;

o What are the functions of the holder and does he perform them for the government; and

o Does the government exercise any control over the performance of those functions

• Further in Jaya Bacchan v. Union of India case in 2006 SC defined it as “an office which is capable of yielding a profit or pecuniary gain.” thus it is not the actual ‘receipt’ of profit but the ‘potential’ for profit that is the deciding factor in an ‘office of profit’ case.

• Provisions of Articles 102 and 191 protect a legislator occupying a government position if the office in question has been made immune to disqualification by law.

• Parliament has also enacted the Parliament (Prevention of Disqualification) Act, 1959, which has been amended several times to expand the exempted list of office of profit.

• There is no bar on how many offices can be exempted from the purview of the law.

Joint Committee on offices of profit:

• It consists of 15 members drawn from both the houses of Parliament with ten members from Lok Sabha and five members from Rajya Sabha.

• It examines the composition and character of the Committees appointed by the Central and State Governments and recommends what offices should or should not disqualify a person for being, a member of either House of Parliament.

• It has defined Office of Profit as:

o Whether the holder draws any remuneration, like sitting fee, honorarium, salary, etc. other than Compensatory allowance.

o Whether the body in which an office is held, exercises executive, legislative

or judicial powers or confers powers of disbursement of funds, allotments of lands, issue of licences, etc., or gives powers of appointment, grant of scholarship, etc.

o Whether the body in which an office is held wields influence or power by way of patronage. •

Name of the Post : Post Graduate Assistants / Physical Education Directors Grade – I


Shortfall vacancies : 3

PWD vacancies : 134

Backlog vacancies : 336

Current Vacancies : 1657

Minority Language/Medium vacancies : 14

Important Dates : A. Date of Notification : 12.06.2019

B. Date of Commencement of application through online mode : 24.06.2019

C. Last date for submission of application through online mode : 15.07.2019

D. Date of Computer Based Examination : Will be announced late

. Qualifications:

a) Age Limit :

Candidates should not be over 57 years as on 0 1-07-2019 as the age of superannuation is 58 years. b) Educational Qualifications:

Post Graduate Assistants No persons shall be eligible for appointment to the Post graduate Assistant post unless the candidate possesses the following qualifications as per G.O.(Ms) No.70, School Education (MS) Department, Dated 12.04.2018. (i) Post Graduate with at least 50% marks (or its equivalent) from recognized University and Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.) from National Council for Teacher Education recognized institution. (or) (ii) Post Graduate with at least 45% marks (or its equivalent) from recognized University and Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.) from NCTE recognized institution (in accordance with the National Council for Teacher Education (Form of application for recognition, the time limit of submission of application, determination of norms and standards for recognition of teacher education programmes and permission to start new course of training) Regulation (Recognition Norms and Procedure) Regulations, 2007 notified on 10.12.2007. (or) (iii) Post Graduate with at least 50% marks (or its equivalent) from recognized University and B.A.Ed./B.Sc.Ed., from any NCTE recognized institution. The above NCTE norm is applicable with the below mentioned relevant qualification as per the communication received from Director of School Education.

c) How to Apply?

a) Candidates should apply only through online mode in the Teachers Recruitment Board website The application process is entirely online. No application in paper will be accepted. b) A valid e-mail id and Mobile Number of candidate are mandatory for registration and e-mail id should be kept active. c) Evidence for claims made by the candidate while applying online should be submitted by the candidate at the time of Certificate Verification, if called for.

Scheme of Examination:

a ) The Computer Based Examination will consist of a single paper of 3 hours duration with 150 MCQs. Each question carries one mark.

The marks allotted to the Main Subject, Educational Methodology and General Knowledge are as follows:

Main Subject 110

Educational Methodology 30

General Knowledge 10

Total 150

The syllabus for the subjects can be downloaded from the TRB website htpp://


In this article, you can read about the Private Member’s Bill in India. This is an important topic for the UPSC exam as it was seen in the news in recent times.

A bill introduced by the member of Parliament who is not a Minister, i.e, a non-government member is known as the Private members bill. Members of Parliament other than ministers are private members. Private Members can also move legislative proposal or Bill which he/she thinks is appropriate to be present in the Statute Book. However, it must be noted that a private member can give a maximum of three notices for the introduction of Private Members Bills during a Session.

Bills introduced by ministers are called Government Bills.

1. Members of Parliament of both the ruling party as well as the opposition can introduce a Private Member Bill.

2. Such bill can be introduced in the parliament only with the prior notice of at least a month.

3. The Private Member bill, in order to become an act, must be passed in both the houses.

4. Once passed in both houses, Presidential assent is also mandatory for the bill to become an Act.

5. Such Bills can be introduced and discussed only on Fridays.

6. The number of private member bills have been capped to 3 per session of Parliament.

President’s role in a Private Member Bill According to the preset traditions, the President of India can use his powers of absolute veto and can easily discard a private member bill.

Committee on Private Members’ Bills and Resolutions:

This committee classifies bills and allocates time for the discussion on bills and resolutions introduced by private members (other than ministers). This is a special committee of the Lok Sabha and consists of 15 members including the Deputy Speaker as its chairman. The Rajya Sabha does not have any such committee. The same function in the Rajya Sabha is performed by the Business Advisory Committee of that House.

List of private members bills

Since 1952, only 14 private member’s bills have become laws. Out of the 300 odd private members bills that were introduced in the 14th Lok Sabha, only about 4% were discussed and the rest 96% lapsed without any debate.

In 2018, MP from Thiruvananthapuram Shashi Tharoor introduced a private member’s bill to regulate betting in sports and penalise match fixing.


In Tamil Nadu, the Old Age Pension Scheme had been introduced in the year 1962 and since then continuously it is being implemented. The guidelines for availing old age pension had been framed as per G.O.(Ms.) No.73, Finance Department, Dated 22.01.1962 and at various stages, Social Security Pension Schemes have been extended to all the vulnerable sections of the society such as differently abled persons, widows, agricultural labourers, poor farmers, deserted wives, unmarried woman of the age of 50 years and above who are destitute and poor. Currently, the Government is granting `1,000 per month as pension uniformly under all pension schemes. The allocation has also been increased substantially up to `4,029.78 crore in 2018-2019.

The eligibility criteria to avail assistance under the three pension schemes under National Social Assistance Programme

The important eligibility criteria for Social Security Pension Schemes fully funded by the Government of Tamil Nadu

The Government have also issued orders to disburse the Social Security Pension through banks on identification of beneficiaries through bio-metric smart cards. As on 31.03.2018, 29,20,030 beneficiaries are getting pension through banks.

Other Benefits to the pensioners

One saree per female pensioner/one dhoti per male pensioner is distributed twice a year i.e. on Pongal and Deepavali festivals to all the pensioners.

Distribution of Rice to beneficiaries

The beneficiaries under the above schemes are permitted to draw rice free of cost as per the following norms: - i. 4 Kgs of fine variety rice per month for those who do not take meals at the Anganwadi Centres.

ii. 2 Kgs of the fine variety rice per month for those who take meals at the Anganwadi Centres.

TAMIL NADU PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION-Combined Engineering Services Examination-2019


one of the following subjects in which the candidate has acquired his/her Degree qualification (Degree Standard - 200 questions each) (i) Agricultural Engineering (Code No. 280) (ii) Automobile Engineering (Code No. 258) (iii) Chemical Engineering (Code No. 260) (iv) Civil Engineering(Code No.261) (v) Electrical Engineering (Code No. 259) (vi) Electronics and Communication Engineering (Code No.304) (vii) Mechanical/Production/Manuf acturing Engineering (Code No.256) (viii) Textile Technology (Code No. 306) (ix) Architecture Engineering (Code No.324)

2).Paper -II

General Studies (Degree Standard-100 questions) Subject Code No-003) General Studies (Degree Standard)-75 Questions and Aptitude and Mental Ability (SSLC Standard)-25 Questions

3).Interview And Records


Applicants should possess the following or its equivalent qualification awarded by any University or Institution recognized by the University Grants Commission/AITUC as the case may be.


Date of Notification 29.05.2019 Last date for submission of application 28.06.2019

Last date for payment of Fee through Bank(State Bank of India or HDFC Bank) 30.06.2019 Date of Written Examination Paper – I (Subject Paper) 10.08.2019 FN 10.00 A.M. to 01.00 P.M Paper – II (General Studies) 10.08.2019 AN 02.30 P.M. to 04.30 P.M

Notification :

For apply :


The Government of Tamil Nadu has always been on the forefront in development and implementation of welfare schemes for women and children in the country. The Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015 aims to provide a system that ensures the care and protection of children by catering to their basic needs, development, treatment, rehabilitation and social reintegration by adopting child friendly approach. The Government of Tamil Nadu is implementing the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015 with commitment so as to provide the best possible opportunities for the growth and development of every child in the society. The State of Tamil Nadu is pioneer in developing a child protection mechanism by establishing approved schools way back in 1887 for addressing the needs of children in difficult circumstances and subsequently, enacting the Madras Children Act, 1920 for the care and protection of children and the management of residential child care institutions.

The Department of Social Defence is implementing the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015 by establishing and maintaining an effective system comprising of all statutory bodies, institutions and services as envisaged under the Act. Child Care Institutions such as Children Homes/Reception Units are managed by the Government as well as Non-Governmental Organisations. The Observation Homes, Special Homes and After Care Homes are exclusively run by the Government. The Department ensures protection of child rights and standards of care in the Child Care Institutions by continuously monitoring and evaluating their functioning. The Department is also successfully implementing the “Child Protection Services” (CPS) under the Umbrella of Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) by creating adequate service delivery structures at the District and State Level. This has significantly contributed to the convergence of services for children and creating a system that will efficiently and effectively protect children. The Department is also concerned with the welfare of girls / women rescued under the Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956. The Department is maintaining Vigilance Homes / Protective Homes in pursuance of the Act for providing care and rehabilitation measures for the victim girls/women.

The Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015

The Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015 is based on the principle of promoting, protecting and safeguarding the rights of children up to the age of 18 years. The Juvenile Justice Act broadly classify children into two different categories viz. (i) children in need of care and protection and (ii) children in conflict with law and facilitate the process of providing care, protection, rehabilitation and social reintegration.

Children in need of Care and Protection

Children in need of care and protection are defined as a child who does not have a home or shelter and no means to obtain such an abode. A child who does not have a parent or guardian or any other relatives to take care of him/her, street children, working children, abused, tortured, exploited and any one found vulnerable and victim of natural calamities are also the children in need of care and protection.

Child Welfare Committees

In accordance with the provisions of the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015, the Government has constituted Child Welfare Committees in all the 32 Districts for exercising the powers and to discharge their duties conferred on them in relation to children in need of care and protection under the Act and Rules. The Committees are functioning as a Bench with the powers of Metropolitan Magistrate or Judicial Magistrate of First Class as per the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973. Each Child Welfare Committee consists of a chairperson and four members (including one woman member). They conduct the proceedings in a child-friendly manner in the best interest of children. A sum of `484.54 lakh has been provided in the Budget Estimate 2018-2019.

Children Homes for Boys and Girls

Children Homes are functioning under the Commissionerate of Social Defence. At present, 36 Children Homes are directly run by Government and 152 Homes are functioning under Non-Governmental Organisations with financial assistance from the Government including 5 Homes for physically and mentally challenged children. The maintenance grant per child per month has been increased from `2,000 to `2,160 to the Non-Governmental Organisations as per the Child Protection Services norms. There are 1,113 children homes run by Non-Governmental Organisations with their own resources and registered under the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015. Children homes provide food, clothing, shelter, medical assistance, education, vocational training, etc., in order to ensure the overall growth and development of children. In total, there are 69,850 children in all the children homes.

A sum of `10,726 lakh has been provided in the Budget Estimate 2018-2019.

Open Shelters for children in need of care and protection in Urban and Semi Urban Areas

Open Shelter for Urban and Semi urban areas will cater to all children in need of care and protection like beggars, street and working children, rag pickers, orphaned, deserted and trafficked children, particularly those without home and family ties, vulnerable to abuse and exploitation especially children of sex workers and children of pavement dwellers. These Open Shelters are not meant to provide permanent residential facilities for children but will complement the existing institutional care facilities for a short term period. At present, 12 Open Shelters (one each in Salem, Tirunelveli, Tiruchirappalli, Coimbatore and 8 in Chennai District) are functioning in Tamil Nadu. The maintenance grant of `2,160 per child per month is provided to Non-Governmental Organisations besides expenses towards rent, water, electricity, transportation and contingencies under Child Protection Services. During 2017-2018, 325 children have benefited under this scheme.

A sum of `265.15 lakh has been provided in Budget Estimate 2018-2019. Children in conflict with Law

The term ‘children in conflict with law' refers to any person not completed the age of 18 years and alleged or found to have committed an offence on the date of commission of such offence.

Juvenile Justice Boards

The Government of Tamil Nadu had constituted Juvenile Justice Boards in all the 32 Districts to take cognizance of cases in relation to children in conflict with law. The Juvenile Justice Boards are vested with powers to deal with children in conflict with law. The Juvenile Justice Board consists of a Metropolitan Magistrate or a Judicial Magistrate of the first class with two Social Worker Members (including one woman member). Similar to Child Welfare Committee, the Board also conducts the proceedings in a child-friendly manner and not as judicial proceedings of Court. In 2016-2017, video conferencing facility in the Government Observation Home, Tirunelveli and in three Juvenile Justice Boards of Sivagangai, Virudhunagar and Ramanathapuram Districts have been set up at a cost of `38.91 lakh to avoid frequent transportation of children from Government Observation Home, Tirunelveli to the Juvenile Justice Boards of the above said Districts and to ensure safety and security of the children. This facility has been extended in the year 2017-2018 in the Government Observation Home, Chennai and in five Juvenile Justice Boards of Kancheepuram, Thiruvallur, Tiruvannamalai, Vellore and Villupuram Districts at a cost of `49.72 lakh. A sum of `260.90 lakh has been provided in the Budget Estimate 2018-2019.

Observation Homes

Observation Homes are meant for the temporary reception of children in conflict with law during the pendency of any inquiry against him / her before the Juvenile Justice Boards. In Tamil Nadu, there are 9 Observation Homes directly functioning under the Government, of which Observation Home at Madurai is under construction. Children residing in the Observation Homes are provided with basic amenities like food, clothing, shelter, medical and non formal education besides counselling and guidance. To ensure the safety of children and for close monitoring, the Government had installed surveillance and security equipments to Observation Homes. The inmates of these homes are provided with counselling services through trained counsellors engaged exclusively at Observation Homes. Vocational training has also been provided to improve their skills. A sum of `482.44 lakh has been provided in the Budget Estimate 2018-2019.

Special Homes for Boys and Girls

The Government has established Special Homes for rehabilitation of children in conflict with law who are found to have committed an offence and ordered by Juvenile Justice Board for rehabilitation in such home. Children could stay in the special home for a maximum period of three years. There are two Government special homes, one at Chennai for girls and the other at Chengalpattu for boys. In special homes, the children are provided with education, vocational training, counselling and facilities for co-curricular activities to develop their skills for self reliance. The Government had provided surveillance and security equipments to Government special homes to ensure safety and security of children.

A sum of `236.23 lakh has been provided in the Budget Estimate 2018-2019. Resource Centres

Resource Centres provide psycho–social support, guidance for children in need of care and protection as well as children in conflict with law while their cases are handled by Child Welfare Committees and Juvenile Justice Boards respectively. These centres also attending to the psychological needs of children in the child care institutions as referred by the Superintendents of child care institutions and also their parents. There are 14 Resource Centers functioning under Non-Governmental Organisations with the financial assistance from Government.

A sum of `7.71 lakh has been provided in the Budget Estimate 2018-2019. Psychological Counselling for Children

The Psychological Counselling is immensely needed for the children especially those who have been admitted in observation homes. Children alleged to have committed an offence are admitted in observation homes by the orders of the Juvenile Justice Boards. Children not released on bail and admitted in the observation homes, children committed to special homes on being found guilty by the Juvenile Justice Boards exhibit aggressive and deviant behavior at times as a result of psychological and emotional problems including withdrawal of addiction in certain cases. In order to overcome the psychological trauma and to help them to adjust with the institutional environment, the Government have provided counselling services to the inmates of the observation homes and special homes through counsellors. The scheme provides for engaging psychological experts for counselling children for 180 days in a year on a honorarium basis of `1,000 per day for each counsellor. A sum of `21.60 lakh has been provided in the Budget Estimate 2018-2019.

Place of Safety

“Place of Safety” is meant to accommodate children between the age of 16 and 18 years and committed a heinous offence and those completed eighteen years of age but apprehended for an offence committed while he was under eighteen years of age. Hence, it is essential that the “Place of Safety” requires a comprehensive rehabilitation programme with enhanced security arrangements. Hence, the Government have sanctioned a sum of `42.00 lakh for repairs, renovation and additional infrastructures to convert the erstwhile Reception Unit building in Vellore as “Place of Safety”.

The Juvenile Justice Fund

The Government had created “The Tamil Nadu Juvenile Justice Fund” with a corpus of `25.00 lakh for undertaking welfare and rehabilitative activities for children as mandated under the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015. The fund facilitates to implement activities which are of urgent need as well as programmes that are not covered under regular budget.

Suicide Prevention Programme for School Children

Suicide is a major mental health problem prevailing among students nowadays, for which preventive strategies are urgently needed. Hence, in order to address the psychological turbulence among children and their tendency towards committing suicide especially before and after examinations and results, the Department had organised Suicide Prevention Programmes in schools in all districts at a cost of `15.04 lakh. This programme is aimed to train 100 teachers in the schools in each District as a “Training of Trainers Programmes’ in collaboration with experts in mental health.

Exclusive De-addiction Centre for children

The Government has established a deaddiction centre through a Non-Governmental Organisation at Chengalpattu in Kancheepuram District exclusively for the children at a cost of `22.99 lakh during 2017-2018. The purpose for the establishment of the De-addiction Centre is to address the problem of addiction among children especially those in conflict with law. The Juvenile Justice Boards will refer the children to this centre for de-addiction. This scheme is fully funded by the State Government.

Construction of New Building for Annai Sathya Government Children Home, Salem

The Annai Sathya Government Children Home, Salem is now functioning in an old building in which additional infrastructure facilities could not be developed to fulfill day to day requirements of children. In order to provide all modern facilities in the Home for the children with happy zone, the Government in the year 2017-2018 has sanctioned for the construction of a new building at a total cost of `9.46 crore.

Construction of New Building for Government Observation Home for Girls, Chennai – 10

As per the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015, the children who are alleged to have committed an offence have to be segregated in terms of their age and gravity of offence while accommodating them in Observation Homes. Considering the same, the Government in the year 2017-2018 has sanctioned for the construction of new building with all basic amenities for the Government Observation Home for Girls, Chennai-10 for segregation and safety and security of children at a total cost of `4.40 crore.

Crafting the children as constructive citizens through Playback theatre in Child Care Institutions

The Government has allocated `30.00 lakh during 2017-2018 for crafting the children as constructive citizens through Playback theatre in Child Care Institutions. Sensitization Programme for all the Heads of Institutions, six Regional Workshops for staff and young facilitators of Child Care Institutions, 30 Dialogue Factory Workshops for children along with 2 staff per workshop have been completed.

Probation System

The Juvenile Justice Act postulates a right based approach and the Probation is an effective tool for early rehabilitation and restoration with the participation of children in every stage. The principles of Juvenile Justice Act always imposes to keep the child in the community and the institutionalisation as the last resort. The Department of Social Defence is having one Probation Officer each in all the 32 Districts. In Chennai 3 Probation Officers are additionally appointed considering the volume of cases. The Probation Officers are assigned with preparation of Social Investigation Reports to assist the Child Welfare Committees as well as Juvenile Justice Boards in arriving at proper disposition of cases brought before them. Follow-up of children in conflict with law in specific cases and after care of children who are discharged from children homes are regularly done by Probation Officers. Considering the important role of Probation Officers and the need for periodical training, capacity building, review and monitoring, the Government in the year 2017-2018 had sanctioned one post of Chief Probation Officer and two posts of Regional Probation Officers at Chennai and Madurai respectively. The Probation Wing in the Department of Social Defence is periodically organizing review meetings and determined to improve the probation services to achieve early and effective rehabilitation of children. In addition to 35 Probation Officers in a regular time scale of pay, 24 Legal cum Probation Officers are also appointed under the Child Protection Services in Districts where the number of cases before the Child Welfare Committees and Juvenile Justice Boards are considerably higher.

After Care Organisations

Young adults who require continued institutional care after their discharge (after 18 years of age) from children homes and special homes are accommodated in after care organizations till they attain the age of 21 years. Young adults who could not be restored to their family for various reasons or children continuing their education or undergoing training are usually admitted in the After Care Organizations. There are two After Care Organizations catering to the needs of young adult boys one at Athur, Chengalpattu (Kancheepuram District) and the other at Madurai. One After Care Organisation is functioning at Vellore for young adult girls. During the year 2017-2018, a sum of `165.89 lakh has been spent to run these institutions. Besides, a Non-Governmental Organization in Mayiladuthurai in Nagapattinam District is supported by the Government for running a shelter home with vocational training for mentally challenged young adults.




171, 12th Main Road, Mullai Colony, Anna Nagar, Chennai, Tamil Nadu 600040.


+91 9500082721, 9444803620




Course Description:

GS Integrated is a comprehensive classroom program which prepares aspirants holistically for both the Prelims and Main stages of the Civil Services Exam.

Syllabus :

Preliminary Exam (Paper I - General Studies & Paper II - CSAT) and Main Exam (General Studies Papers – I, II, III, IV and Essay)

• Classes will be held 7 days in a week according to time schedule
• Extra classes may be held to cover the syllabus on time
• Inclusions Besides lectures and talks on all the themes of the syllabus there will be special lectures on contemporary issues, current affairs and essay writing. Suggest Study material in all the compulsory papers of Pre & Main exam ) Current Affairs Analysis • Class tests for Pre and Main exams for regular assessments
• Test Series and QIP (P) (quality improvement programme) before Preliminary Exam
• Test Series and QIP (M) before Mains Exam for those who clear Preliminary exam and are going to appear in the Mains Interview Guidance for those short-listed to appear in the interview/ personality test

ITBP Recruitment 2019-20

• Name of the Organization:
Indo Tibetian Border Police (ITBP)

• Name of the Posts:
Constable (GD)

• No of Vacancies: 121

• Category: Police Jobs

• Job Location: All Over India

• Official Website:

• Starting Date to Apply Online: 22nd April 2019
• Last Date to Apply Online: 21st June 2019

Educational Qualification

• Passed Matriculation or its equivalent from a recognized university or institution

Sports Qualification:

• Players who have participated or won a medal in the level of competition given at Para 4 (b) of this advertisement from 1st January 2017 till 21st June 2019 will only be considered ITBP Police Jobs Selection Process

Apply Online Link: Official Website: SELECTION PROCESS:

• Written Examination
• Documentation
• Physical Standard Test
• Medical Examination


Integrated Child Development Services Scheme (ICDS) is the largest integrated early childhood programme which provides weaning food, preschool education and primary health care to children under 6 years of age, adolescent girls and Antenatal/ Postnatal mothers. The Anganwadi centre – “A Courtyard Play Centre” - is the symbol of Government systems and services closest to the disadvantaged communities at village/hamlet level. It is the focal point for converging various Government programmes, primary health care and education delivery systems for young children, adolescent girls and women from under privileged communities. The Integrated Child Development Services Scheme was launched in India in the year 1975 on the 106th birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi with 33 Projects which was designed as a befitting tribute to him. Three Projects namely Chennai (Urban), Nilakottai (Rural) and Thali (Tribal) were started in Tamilnadu. Now the scheme is being implemented in all the Districts. The broad framework of our State policy is to achieve the specific goal of “Malnutrition free Tamil Nadu”. Integrated Child Development Services Scheme is a centre place to improve the nutritional status of beneficiaries by adopting life cycle approach for intervening sustainable growth.

Vision of ICDS

ICDS visualises:- a. A holistic physical, psychosocial, cognitive and emotional development of children under 6 years of age.
b. To nurture protective, child friendly, development, learning and promotion of optimal early childhood care with greater emphasis on children under three years.
c. A gender sensitive family, community programme and policy environment including adolescent and maternal care.

Objectives and Strategies

•To institutionalize essential services and strengthen infrastructures at all levels Implementing ICDS to prevent under nourishment and assure children of the best possible start to life, focussing on children under-3 years; focussing on early child care and learning environment.

•To enhance capacities at all levels Training of all functionaries / staff to strengthen field based joint action and teamwork to achieve desired results and laid down objectives.

•To ensure appropriate inter-sectoral responses at all levels

Ensure convergence at the grass root level by strengthening partnership with the Health, Rural Development and Panchayat Raj, Municipal Administration and Water Supply Departments and Communities to improve outreach and quality of child development services. •To raise public awareness at all levels and participation

Inform the beneficiary group and public on the availability of the four core child development services under ICDS and promote social mobilization and voluntary action.

•To create database and knowledge base for child development services Strengthen ICDS Management Information System (MIS); Use Information Communication Technology (ICT) to strengthen the information base and facilitate sharing and dissemination of information; Undertake research and documentation.

Services provided under ICDS

The objectives of ICDS are delivered through a package of six services:-

i. Supplementary Nutrition
ii. Non formal preschool education
iii. Nutrition and Health Education
iv. Immunization
v. Health Checkups
vi. Referral services
Umbrella ICDS Scheme

In the financial year 2016-2017 Government of India renamed the restructured ICDS into umbrella ICDS scheme within its ambit. During 2017, Government of India have brought the National Nutrition Mission, Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana (PMMVY), under Umbrella ICDS inclusive of the following sub schemes.

i. Anganwadi Services (in place of ICDS)
ii. Scheme for Adolescent Girls (erstwhile SABLA)
iii. Child Protection Services (erstwhile Integrated Child Protection Scheme)
iv. National Creche Scheme (erstwhile Rajiv Gandhi National Creche Scheme)
v. National Nutrition Mission and
vi. Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana (PMMVY)

Universalisation of ICDS – Opening Of New Centres

In order to fulfill its commitment towards universalisation of ICDS and operationalising 14 lakh Child Centres – (Anganwadi Centres) throughout the Country, the Government of India have revised the population, nutrition and financial guidelines for setting up of the Child Centres based on the recommendations of the Inter-Ministerial Task Force.

In Tamil Nadu, the Integrated Child Development Services Scheme (ICDS) is now implemented through 49,499 Main Anganwadi Centres and 4,940 Mini Anganwadi Centres, totalling to 54,439 centres functioning under 434 ICDS Projects. Of which, 385 are rural projects, 47 are urban projects and 2 are tribal projects.

Beneficiaries of the Scheme

a) Children in the age group of birth to 72 months
b) Adolescent girls (11-14 years, out of school only)
c) Pregnant women and Lactating mothers

Supplementary Nutrition

Tamil Nadu is a pioneer state in implementing various nutritional schemes, with an aim to march towards “Malnutrition Free Tamil Nadu” among children, Adolescent girls, Pregnant and Lactating Mothers. In order to bridge the protein and energy gap between the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) and average dietary intake of ICDS beneficiaries, the following efforts are being put into operation.

Weaning Food

To increase the nutritional level of the children, supplementary nutrition in the form of complementary (weaning) food is provided to children in the age group of 6 months to 36 months, Pregnant and Lactating mothers, Adolescent girls (11 to 14 years out of school) and additional quantity of supplementary nutrition is provided to children in the age group of 3 to 5 years in 5 districts which are prone for Japanese Encephalitis Syndrome.

Though the fund sharing pattern for the cost of Supplementary nutrition is 50:50 between Centre and State, the State Government incurs more than the mandatory norms fixed by Government of India. Every month the quality of Supplementary Weaning Food is being tested by Food and Nutrition Board and in Government Accredited Labs at random basis.

Nutritional intervention in Japanese Encephalitis affected areas

Five districts namely Karur, Madurai, Thanjavur, Thiruvarur, and Villupuram have been identified as high risk areas prone to be affected with Japanese Encephalitis. Undernutrition is an important factor for Japanese Encephalitis syndrome. Hence special efforts are being taken to improve the nutritional status of the moderately/severely under nourished children in the age group of 37 months to 60 months. These children are provided with 80 gms of additional Supplementary Nutrition (Complementary Weaning Food) for 300 days in a year through Anganwadi centres. Thus, in coordination with Health Department, the Japanese Encephalitis cases has been reduced.

Variety Meal to Anganwadi Children (2 to 5+ children)

In consultation with the renowned Nutritionists and considering the special nature and digestive capacity of children below the age of 5+ years attending Anganwadi Centres, the provision of following Variety Meal programme was introduced in one block of each district on 20.03.2013 on a pilot basis and then, the scheme has been further extended to all Anganwadi Centres throughout the State with effect from 15.08.2014.

The Government have enhanced the feeding charges for the Variety Rice Scheme from 56 paise to `1.13 in the days dhal is used and `1.35 in the days dhal is not used.

Fortification of Food Materials

Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) has formulated comprehensive regulations for fortified foods under Food Safety and Standards Act 2006. Accordingly Government of India has advised the State Government to ensure mandatory fortification of salt, wheat flour and edible oil under Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS), Mid Day Meal (MDM) Programme and Public Distribution System (PDS) during 2017. However with foresight, considering the best interest of the children, the State of Tamil Nadu implemented the usage of Iodised salt under Nutritious Meal Programme during 1991 itself.
•The Tamil Nadu Salt Corporation Limited is supplying Iron and Iodine fortified (Doubled Fortified) salt to all Anganwadi Centres.
•Palmolien oil fortified with Vitamin A & Vitamin D, free from Argemone oil supplied to Anganwadi Centres by Tamil Nadu Civil Supplies Corporation.
•To enhance the nutritive value of Supplementary Weaning Food, Micro Nutrients and soluble Vitamins are being added.

Weight Monitoring

Under Integrated Child Development Services Scheme, weight of 0 to 5 years children is being taken and monitored every month and plotted in the WHO register. From the growth curve, the nutritional status is assessed and action is taken to address malnourished children. Age appropriate Weighing machines i.e. Baby Weighing Scale, Bar Weighing Scale and Adult Weighing scale are provided to the Anganwadi Centres for monitoring the weight of beneficiaries in Anganwadi centres.

Convergence Activities with Health Department

The health intervention activities, particularly immunization of children and pregnant mothers, Iron Folic Acid supplementation, Deworming Tablets/Syrup, referral services and providing Vitamin-A, all such activities have been carefully planned and implemented with the co-ordinated efforts of both ICDS and Health functionaries.

Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE)

Early Childhood Care and Education refers to programmes and provisions for children from prenatal to six years of age which cater to the needs of a child in all domains of development i.e. physical, motor, language, cognitive, socio-emotional, creative, aesthetic appreciation, ensure synergy with health and nutrition aspects. This could cover developmental priorities for each sub stage within the continuum, i.e. care, early stimulation/interaction needs for children below 3 years and developmentally appropriate preschool education for 3 to 6 year children with a more structured and planned school readiness component for 5 to 6 year children. In line with the National ECCE Policy 2013, State specific, developmentally and age appropriate Annual Contextualized Curriculum termed as “AADI PAADI VILAIYADU PAPPA” has been developed by ICDS and the same has been validated by Government of India. This curriculum consists of 11 month theme based activities to be conducted for children at Anganwadi Centres, 12th month being the revision of the same. Necessary Teaching Learning Materials (TLMs) viz. ECCE Curriculum Books for Anganwadi Workers, Activity Book, Assessment Cards and Pre-school kit materials for children has been provided to all Anganwadi Centres.

Name of the Post: SBI Specialist Cadre Officer Online Form 2019

Post Date: 22-05-2019

Latest Update: 23-05-2019

Total Vacancy: 579

Important Dates

• Starting Date for Apply Online & Fee Payment: 23-05-2019
• Last Date to Apply Online & Fee Payment: 12-06-2019

Degree/ PG with relevant experience
MBA/ PGDM with relevant experience

Any Degree with relevant experience, Valid driving licence for two-wheeler forCustomer Relationship Executive




Education lays the foundation for the development of a society and hunger becomes an impediment to learning. Keeping this vision, the Nutritious Meal Programme was introduced by the then Chief Minister Dr.Puratchi Thalaivar M.G.R. on 01.07.1982. The main objective of the programme is to emphasize on education along with nutrition. Under this programme free hot cooked nutritious meal is being provided to children in Government Schools, Government aided Schools, Special Training Centres, Madarasas, Maktabs supported under Sarva Shiksha Abiyan and also in Special Schools functioning under National Child Labour Programme.

Objectives of the Programme

1. To maximize enrolment and reduce school dropout rates with a view to universalize elementary education.
2. To provide nutrition to the under fed and under nourished children.
3. To encourage children from disadvantaged background to attend school regularly and to help them in attaining formal education.
4. To empower women by providing employment opportunities.

Milestones of Nutritious Meal Programme

The Nutritious Meal Programme was introduced on 01.07.1982 for the Children in the age groups of 2 to 5 years and 5 to 9 years in primary schools. The scheme was extended to urban areas with effect from 15.09.1982 and further extended to all the children in the age group of 10-15 years from 15.09.1984.

Salient Features of the Scheme

i. Primary School children in the age group of 5-9 years and Upper Primary School children in the age group of 10-15 years are provided with hot cooked nutritious variety meals in the school for five days in a week for a total of 210 days in a year.

ii. The children enrolled under National Child Labour Project Special Schools in 16 Districts viz., Kancheepuram, Vellore, Tiruvannamalai, Namakkal, Dharmapuri, Krishnagiri, Salem, Coimbatore, Erode, Tiruppur, Thiruchirappalli, Dindigul, Virudhunagar, Tirunelveli, Thoothukudi and Chennai are also provided with hot cooked nutritious variety meals for 312 days in a year.

iii. Food grains (rice) @ 100 gm per child per school day for primary school children (1st Std. to 5th Std.) and @ 150 gm for upper primary and high school (6th Std. to 10th Std.) is provided.

Components of Nutritious Meal Programme

Variety Meals

Variety Meals in the menu was introduced as pilot basis in one block of all districts in the year 2013 and extended to all districts from 15.8.2014. Training on hygiene and cooking methods has been imparted to the noon meal employees.

Provision of Eggs

The State provides eggs with minimum weight of 46 gms along with hot cooked nutritious variety meals is provided to the enrolled children on all school working days which provides 6.12 gms of protein and 80 kcal of energy.

Procurement of eggs with Agmark specification of ‘A’ for medium grade eggs is done through State level tender by following the provisions of the Tamil Nadu Transparency in Tenders Act,1998 and Rules,2000. Stamping of eggs with food graded colours has been introduced to strengthen the monitoring mechanism.

Pulses – Bengal Gram / Green Gram

On the first and third Tuesdays of every month 20 gms of ‘Black Bengal Gram’ is provided to each child in the form of ‘Pulav’ which provides 72 kcal of energy and 3.42 gms of protein.

On the second and fourth Thursday of every month 20 gms of ‘Green Gram’ is provided as ‘sundal’ to each child which provides 67 kcal of energy and 4.80 gms of protein.


Every Friday children are provided with 20 gms of chilly fried potato to increase the carbohydrate content, which has 19.04 kcal of energy and 0.32 gms of protein.


Bananas are provided to the children who do not eat egg. 100 gms of Banana provides 116 kcal of energy and 1.2 gms of protein. 12,946 children are benefited.

Double Fortified Salt and Cooking Oil

Palmolein and Double Fortified Salt are supplied by Tamil Nadu Civil Supplies Corporation which are used in the preparation of nutritious meal. Palmolein is fortified with Vitamin A & Vitamin D which helps in prevention of Vitamin A & D deficiencies. Double Fortified Salt is fortified with Iodine and Iron which prevents Goiter and Anaemia.

National Programme of Mid Day Meal

•The Government of India initiated the National Programme of Nutritional Support to Primary Education (NP-NSPE) on 15th August 1995 as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme. During 1997-1998, the scheme was universalized across all blocks of the country covering children from 1st standard to 5th standard. During October 2007, the scheme was extended to upper primary classes of 6th standard to 8th standard and the name was changed from ‘National Programme for Nutritional Support to Primary Education’ to ‘National Programme of Mid Day Meal in Schools’.

•The Government of India provides fund for implementing the scheme with 60:40 sharing pattern between the Centre and State Governments. However, the cost of food grains, its transportation and Monitoring, Management and Evaluation (MME) component is fully borne by Government of India.

•Government of India has fixed the nutritional norm for primary children as 450 kcal and 12 gms of protein and for upper primary as 700 kcal and 20 gms of protein. Considering the best interest of the children the State Government provides 553.30 kcal and 18.12 gms of protein for primary children and 733.86 kcal and 21.64 gms of protein for upper primary children.

•Government of India provides rice at the rate of `3,000 per MT to children from 1st standard to 8th standard. In addition, a sum of `750 per Metric tonne is provided as transportation cost.

Government of India provides cooking cost (excluding the labour and administrative charges) @ `4.13 for primary and `6.18 for upper primary children. However, the State Government provides more than the mandatory share of 40% so as to provide nutritious food to children.


•Food commodities like Rice, Dhal, Oil, Black Bengal Gram and Green Gram which are required for the Nutritious Meal Programme are supplied by The Tamil Nadu Civil Supplies Corporation.

•Based on the indent placed by the District Officials TNCSC lifts the rice allocated by the Government of India from the Food Corporation of India and supply directly to the Noon Meal Centres.

The programme has been extended to 9th & 10th standard children and the entire expenditure is met out of State funds. The rice is supplied by the TNCSC at the rate of `10,438 per MT.

•Tamil Nadu Civil Supplies Corporation procures Double Fortified Salt from the Tamil Nadu Salt Corporation and distributes to the Noon Meal Centres. Thus, the network with TNCSC ensures constant supply of food items directly to the Noon Meal Centres without any disruption.

•Vegetables and condiments are purchased by the Noon Meal Organisers using the funds credited as advance grant into their bank account through Electronic Clearance Service (ECS). An amount of `1.17 per primary school child and `1.27 per Upper Primary school child is provided to the Noon Meal Organisers for this purpose.

Construction of Kitchen-cum-Stores

The cost of construction of kitchen-cumstores is determined on the basis of plinth area norms and State schedule of rates prevalent in the State. Now, 20 plinth area is admissible for schools having upto 100 children and additional 4 plinth area for every additional 100 children can be added. The expenditure arrived out of the schedule of rates are shared in the ratio of 60:40 between the Centre and State.

From the year 2011 upto 31.3.2018, 20,680 new Kitchen-cum-Stores have been constructed.

Modernisation of Noon Meal Centres

In order to create ‘smoke free atmosphere’ in the Noon Meal Centres, Modernisation of Noon Meal Centres have been taken up and LPG connection is provided to the centres exclusively out of State Funds. A sum of `22,350 is provided per centre, which is inclusive of the cost of construction of cooking platform, procurement of gas stove and gas connection (including non returnable valve, safety measures etc.). The work has been completed in 35,713 centres. All Noon Meal Employees have been provided training by the respective gas agencies in handling the gas stoves.

Kitchen Devices

Government have sanctioned a sum of `480.75 lakh towards the procurement of 19,230 Pressure cookers @ `2,500 per piece in order to facilitate the cooking process easily and the same has been procured and distributed to the centres.

Noon Meal Centres are provided with necessary kitchen devices like Aluminium Dabara with lid, Stainless steel karandi, Indolium kadai etc., to facilitate cooking at a cost of `5,000 per Noon Meal Centre. A sum of `6.00 crore was sanctioned for 12,000 centres during the year 2017-2018.
In order to ensure the exact measurement of the daily ration used for cooking noon meal, electronic weighing scales will be supplied to the noon meal centres. A sum of `1.86 crore has been sanctioned to procure 43,200 electronic weighing scales.

Impact of the Programme

The implementation of the programme has brought a positive change on enrolment, retention and attendance of students in schools. It also enables education of girl children and improves the nutritional status of the children.

Name of the Post:Employees Provident Fund Organisation Assistant Online Form 2019

Post Name : Assistant

vacancy : 280


• Must possess Degree from recognized University or equivalent as on 25th June, 2019

Important Dates

• Starting Date to Apply Online: 30-05-2019
• Last Date to Apply Online: 25-06-2019
• Preliminary Examination (Phase-I) dates : 30 & 31-07-2019
• Downloading of Call Letters: 20-07-2019 to 30-07-2019
• Main Examination (Phase-II): Call letters will be sent after Declaration of result of Preliminary Examination (Phase-I).

Official Website :


State Award for Girl Child

The Government has announced a State Award for the first time, to recognize and appreciate the efforts of a Girl Child (below 18 years of age), to be given on the National Girl Child Day, 24th January. The Award is given to a girl child who has worked towards prevention of crimes against girl children, ensuring education for all girl children, eradicating girl child labour and prohibition of child marriages. The award consists of a cash prize of `1.00 lakh along with a citation.

Avvaiyar Award

March 8th, being the International Women’s Day is a day dedicated for the women across the world. To mark this occasion, the “Avvaiyar Award” (State Award) is given to one eminent woman who has rendered excellent service in any one field such as Social Reform, Women Development, Communal harmony, Service for language, Service in various disciplines in Art, Science, Culture, Press, Administration, etc.,

Gold Medal weighing 8 gram (22 carat), cash award of `1.00 lakh as Cheque, a Shawl and a Citation are given to the recipient of the Avvaiyar Award.

Independence Day Award

Every year on Independence Day, Awards for Best Social Worker for outstanding work done for women and Best Institution for serving women are given. The Best Social Worker is given 22 carat Gold Medal weighing 10 grams, a Shawl and a Citation and the Best Institution is given a cash award of `50,000 in addition to a shawl and a gold medal.


The State Government has been consistently working towards the welfare of the Third Gender in order to mainstream this marginalized community with the society.

The Government has constituted a Welfare Board for Third Gender to redress their grievances, provide livelihood opportunities, educational assistance and social security through which the Third Gender are given an identity in the society. The Tamil Nadu Third Gender Welfare Board consists of 11 Official Members including the Hon’ble Minister for Social Welfare and Nutritious Meal Programme as its Chairperson and 12 Non-Official Members (Third Gender).

So far, 5,200 Identity Cards have been issued to Third Gender. To empower the Third Gender economically, Third Gender Self Help Groups and individual Third Gender have been provided financial assistance for start-up businesses like setting provision stores, rearing of milch animals, canteens, production units of soap, napkin, milk products, plying passenger autos, load autos and business activities related to cloth, coir, rice etc.

Upto 2017-2018, the Government have provided subsidy of `2.05 crore for starting their own business benefiting nearly 1,175 Third Gender. The Government provides monthly pension of `1,000 to the destitute Third Genders above the age of 40 years. Every year 1,000 Third Gender are being benefited under this scheme.

Documents like Birth Certificate, Educational Certificate, Community Certificate and other essential identity cards like Ration Card, Voter Identity Card etc. and housing facilities are provided through convergence with other departments.

A sum of `220.00 lakh has been provided in the Budget Estimate 2018-2019.


In India the population of elderly is fast growing and constitutes 8.6% of total population as per 2011 census. In Tamil Nadu, it is 10.4% which is higher than the national average and has become a major social challenge to safeguard their well-being. A time has come now to provide economic and health needs of the elderly and to create an environment which is satisfies their emotional needs of the growing elderly population.
The Government of India has enacted the “Maintenance and Welfare of Parents and Senior Citizen Act, 2007” for their care and protection.
Apart from implementing the above said Act, the State Government also implements various schemes for the welfare of Senior Citizens.

The Maintenance and Welfare of Parents and Senior Citizens Act, 2007

The Maintenance and Welfare of Parents and Senior Citizens Act, 2007, provides a statutory protection for Senior Citizens as guaranteed and recognized under the Constitution and it is being implemented in this State and the State rules have been framed and notified.

Salient Features of the Act

A senior citizen or a parent who is unable to maintain himself from his own earnings or out of the property owned by him is entitled to make an application under Section 5 of the Act to obtain maintenance amount from his children / legal heirs.
An application filed under this Act for monthly allowance shall be disposed off within 90 days.

•The maximum maintenance allowance shall not exceed `10,000 per month.
•If the persons responsible for the care and protection of senior citizens abandon the senior citizens, such persons shall be punished with imprisonment for three months or fine up to `5,000 or with both.

Grievance Redressal Mechanism

The Government of Tamil Nadu has constituted a Tribunal in each sub-division with the concerned Revenue Divisional Officer as a Presiding Officer for the purpose of adjudicating and deciding upon the order of maintenance as per G.O. (Ms.) No. 172, Social Welfare and Nutritious Meal Programme (SW 6) Dept., dated 31.12.2009. There are 81 Tribunals functioning in the State for speedy disposal of petitions from senior citizens. An Appellate Tribunal chaired by the District Collector has been constituted in each district to hear appeals against the orders of the Tribunal.

The District Social Welfare Officers act as the Maintenance Officers as well as Conciliation Officers. Till 2017-18, out of 2360 petitions received, the Conciliation Officers have resolved 1103 cases, final orders for 302 cases have been issued by Revenue Divisional Officers for maintenance.

State Council and District Committees for Senior Citizens

A High Level Advisory Committee with the Chief Secretary as Chairperson, 15 official members and 7 Non-official members has been constituted in the State, to advise and supervise the effective implementation of the Maintenance and Welfare of Parents and Senior Citizens Act, 2007. Similarly, District Level Committee with the District Collector as the Chairperson, 3 Official members and 4 Non-official members including 2 Senior Citizens have been constituted in all the Districts.

Integrated Complexes of Special Homes for Senior Citizens and Destitute Children

In order to bring a mutual bonding between the senior citizen and the children who are in need of care and protection, a novel scheme of Integrated Complex was introduced by the Government. Integrated Complexes are run by the State Government through Non Governmental Organizations. In each Integrated complex 25 elders and 25 children can be accommodated.
Now, 2,346 (1,147 elders+1,199 children) beneficiaries are benefitted in 51 Integrated Complexes.

A sum of `670.76 lakh has been sanctioned in the Budget Estimate for 2018-2019 for Integrated Complex.

Old Age Homes run by Non- Governmental Organisations with State Government Grant

Apart from the Integrated Complex, Old age homes are also run by Non-Governmental Organisations with State grant. Feeding Charges for the inmates have been enhanced from `300 per month to `1,200 per month with effect from 01.09.2016 vide G.O.(Ms.) No. 11, SW&NMP (SW6(1)) Dept., Dt:23.02.2017. Now, 674 beneficiaries are benefitted in 20 Old Age Homes.

Centrally Sponsored Welfare Programme - Integrated Programme for Senior Citizen (IPSrC)

The Integrated Programme for Older Persons (IPOP) is revised on 01.04.2018 as Integrated Programme for Senior Citizen (IPSrC) and implemented through Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, Government of India. The main objective of the Scheme is to improve the quality of life of the Older Persons by providing basic amenities like shelter, food, medical care and entertainment facilities. The following schemes leads to productive and active ageing for senior citizens:-

1. Maintenance of Senior Citizens' Homes
2. Maintenance of Continuous Care Homes and Homes for senior citizens afflicted with Alzheimer's disease/ Dementia
3. Maintenance of Mobile Medicare Units
4. Physiotherapy Clinics for Senior Citizens
5. Maintenance of Regional Resource and Training Centres.

Under IPOP, 49 Old Age Homes and 21 other programmes were recommended for a sum of `606.69 lakh for the year 2017-2018.

Celebration of International Day of Senior Citizens

The International Day of Senior Citizens is celebrated on 1st October of every year at State and District level, to recognize the services of senior citizens and to make optimum use of their resourcefulness.

The best Non-Governmental Organization and Social Workers who have worked for the cause of the elder persons are honoured during the celebration. Health camps are conducted and aids and appliances are also distributed to needy senior citizens as part of the celebration.

World Elders Abuse Awareness Day

Our elders face abuse and violence in their day to day life both in public and private spheres. This also includes abuse from their immediate kith and kin. It is our endeavor to create awareness and protect their self respect. To fulfill the needs of senior citizens for leading a safe and dignified life the Government has decided to observe June 15th as “World Elders Abuse Awareness Day” in all Schools, Colleges and Government Offices. In this regard, a pledge will be taken to mark the occasion.

Vaccination to Elderly Person in Old Age Homes

When people get older their immune system declines and they face an increasing risk of infectious diseases. Prevalence of multiple diseases coupled with poor nutrition paves way for poor quality of life and leads to morbidity. The elderly persons are already given a lot of medicines for their chronic diseases such as Diabetics, Blood Pressure , etc. and some of the elders may also be taking medicines for cancer, heart problems and other serious ailments. The elderly need immunization for protection against serious infectious diseases just as children do.

Pneumococcal disease is the leading cause of deaths from vaccine preventable diseases. To prevent this, it is proposed to administer vaccine PREVNAR 13 after necessary health checkup by the Health and Family Welfare Department to the elders who are given care and protection in the Old Age Homes and Integrated Complexes functioning in the State with Government grants. This initiative is first of its kind in India.

The Vaccine will be procured through Tamil Nadu Medical Services Corporation Limited and will be administered to the Senior Citizens through Medical Officers / Government Doctors working in nearby Primary Health Centre, Taluk Head Quarters Hospitals and District Head Quarters hospital in the State through Health Department. Training for Medical/NGO Team before administering the vaccine will be given through Health and Family Welfare Department.

4,133 Elders will be benefited under this vaccination programme.
A sum of `165.32 lakh has been sanctioned in the Budget Estimate for the year 2017-2018.

Indian Coast Guard Assistant Commandant-2019:

Vacancy Details:
Assistant Commandant – 01/2020 Batch

Candidates who have passed Bachelor’s degree from any recognized university with minimum 60% marks in aggregate

How to Apply:
The term and condition given in this advertisement are subject to change and should therefore be treated as guidelines only. Details are also available on Indian Coast Guard recruitment website

Important Dates:
Starting Date to Apply Online: 24-05-2019
Last Date to Apply Online: 04-06-2019


Child Welfare is the continuum of child care services and programs being implemented by the Government for the care, protection, security and well being of children up to 18 years. The State is committed to take affirmative measures to promote and safeguard the rights of all children. The Government also gives special attention to issues relating to girl children who are from vulnerable sections of the society. The Department is implementing the following schemes for the welfare of girl children:-

1. Cradle Baby Scheme
2. Chief Minister’s Girl Child Protection Scheme
3. Beti Bachao Beti Padhao Scheme
4. Special Need Children Homes

NABARD Recruitment 2018 79 Assistant Manager in Grade `A’ Posts:

Organization Name: National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development

Job Category: Central Govt Jobs

Total No of Vacancies: 79

Educational Qualification: Bachelor’s Degree in any subject from a recognized University with a minimum of 50% marks

Selection Procedure:
1.Phase I - Preliminary Examination (Online Exam)
2.Phase II - Main Examination & Phase III – Interview

How to apply:

Eligible candidates can apply online through the Official website from 10.05.2019 to 26.05.2019. Before applying, Candidates should ensure that they fulfill the eligibility criteria as per published in the online advertisement.


The Department of Social Welfare and Nutritious Meal Programme implements important schemes for women and children which have contributed in improving gender equality and child sex ratio of the State and eradicating harmful practices such as child marriage and female infanticide. Systematic and structured State Policies have gone a long way in addressing violence and crimes against women and ensure their rights.

The State Government has extended many welfare programme for senior citizens to strengthen their legitimate place in the society and help older people to live the last phase of their life with purpose, dignity and peace. The schemes for Senior Citizens provides financial security, food, health care, shelter and addresses the emotional needs of vulnerable, destitute elders thereby contributing to an equitable share in development.

Tamil Nadu was the first state in the country to form the Third Gender Welfare Board with representatives from the Third Gender community thereby paving way for social inclusion. Third Gender communities who have been a neglected, marginalized group have found a ray of hope through Tamil Nadu Government’s focused schemes aiming to provide an identity and to promote their livelihoods.

These innovative schemes implemented by Social Welfare and Nutritious Meal Programme Department for different sections of the society have brought laurels to the State and have set an example to the country as a whole.

Indian Navy Officer - Short Service Commission Across India

Qualifications : BE/B.Tech from AICTE recognized institute / university with minimum 60% marks SSC Naval Armament Inspection Cadre (NAIC) -No. of Vacancies : 08

SSC ATC-No. of Vacancies : 04

SSC Observer-No. of Vacancies : 0

SSC Pilot (MR) -No. of Vacancies : 03

SSC Pilot (Other than MR) -No. of Vacancies : 0

SSC Logistics-No. of Vacancies : 14

SSC X (IT) -No. of Vacancies : 15

SSC Engineering Branch [General Service (GS)] -No. of Vacancies : 24

SSC Electrical Branch [General Service (GS)] -No. of Vacancies : 24

Examination Fees : Candidates (SC/ST/women candidates are exempted from payment of fees) are required to pay a fee of Rs.205/- (Rupees Two Hundred five only) through online mode. Admit card will be issued for the examination only to those candidates who have successfully paid the examination fee and who are entitled to waiver of examination fee. Selection Procedure :

(a) INET b) Shortlisting for SSB (c) SSB Procedure. d)Training How to apply

Interested candidates should Apply Online latest by 29 MAY 2019.

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If you want to clear the civil service examination then this is the place you need to come. In this examination most of the students think that GS part is very wide and difficult to cover but in P.L Raj it is made very easy and proper guide is given on how to cover the syllabus.

Mr Nivas


The best civil service coaching centre that I have found in Chennai is P.L Raj memorial study circle. Here along with the guidance motivation also given to the students to reach the goal. only subject experts are taking class here and all the staffs working here are clarifying each and every doubt and im very thankful for the institute in all the way they supported me.

Mr Veerapandiyan IAS


Dear aspirant in P.L Raj you will get the best coaching for GS apart from that the positive vibration and motivation from kumareshwari Mam was excellent and it will drive the force in you. Mam can only handle the GS part and this is the judging part in UPSC EXAM.

Mr Muthukumar


This an institute with the motive of producing quality leader to the nation thus there slogan says that “Making you serve the nation”. And the way they are helping the poor candidates shows the real motive of the institute. Many students got fees concession and the actual fee is also nominal. They are providing a quality education in a economical way and hence I recommend all the aspirants to join here.

Mr Balasubramanian


P.L.Raj institute is the only institute which I found in Chennai that they will help you till you clear the examination either it is TNPSC / UPSC. In other institute the fee structure is high and once the batch which we joined is over they will not guide you further but here even though you are old student if you need any help definitely they will do it for sure. The main aim of this institute is to produce Honest Officers and they are doing it also Hats off to the institute and Im very much Proud that I studied here.

Ms Nirmala devi


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