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Today Tnpsc Group1 mains challenge-Gene Testing

Gene Testing

Gene tests are DNA based test. They are the newest and most sophisticated of the techniques used to test genetic disorders. It involves direct examination of the DNA molecule itself. Other genetic tests include biochemical tests for such gene products as enzymes and other proteins and for microscopic examination of stained or fluorescent chromosomes.

Genetic Testing is used for several reasons:
• Career screening involves identifying unaffected individuals who carries one copy of a gene for a disease which is not expressed as they do not carry 2 genes.
• Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis like screening the embryo.
• Prenatal diagnostic testing
• Newborn screening
• Pre-symptomatic testing for predicting adult-onset disorders such as Huntington’s disease
• Pre-symptomatic testing for estimating the risk of developing adult-onset cancers and Alzheimer’s disease
• Confirmational diagnosis of a symptomatic individual.

Some of the available DNA Based Gene Tests are,
• Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency
• Alzheimer’s disease
• Gaucher disease (enlargement of liver and spleen, bone degeneration)
• Dystonia (muscle rigidity)
• Galactosemia (metabolic disorder affects ability to metabolize galactose)

The Advantages of Gene Testing:
• It is used to clarify a diagnosis and direct a physician toward appropriate treatments
• It helps to avoid having children with devastating diseases.
• It saves many lives by providing aggressive monitoring for and removal of colon growths in those inheriting a gene for familial adenomatous polyposis.
• It provides doctors simple diagnostic test for a common iron storage disease which is fatal.