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Today Tnpsc Group1 mains challenge-INTEGRATED CHILD DEVELOPMENT SERVICES SCHEME 2018-19


INTEGRATED CHILD DEVELOPMENT SERVICES SCHEME

Integrated Child Development Services Scheme (ICDS) is the largest integrated early childhood programme which provides weaning food, preschool education and primary health care to children under 6 years of age, adolescent girls and Antenatal/ Postnatal mothers. The Anganwadi centre – “A Courtyard Play Centre” - is the symbol of Government systems and services closest to the disadvantaged communities at village/hamlet level. It is the focal point for converging various Government programmes, primary health care and education delivery systems for young children, adolescent girls and women from under privileged communities. The Integrated Child Development Services Scheme was launched in India in the year 1975 on the 106th birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi with 33 Projects which was designed as a befitting tribute to him. Three Projects namely Chennai (Urban), Nilakottai (Rural) and Thali (Tribal) were started in Tamilnadu. Now the scheme is being implemented in all the Districts. The broad framework of our State policy is to achieve the specific goal of “Malnutrition free Tamil Nadu”. Integrated Child Development Services Scheme is a centre place to improve the nutritional status of beneficiaries by adopting life cycle approach for intervening sustainable growth.

Vision of ICDS

ICDS visualises:- a. A holistic physical, psychosocial, cognitive and emotional development of children under 6 years of age.
b. To nurture protective, child friendly, development, learning and promotion of optimal early childhood care with greater emphasis on children under three years.
c. A gender sensitive family, community programme and policy environment including adolescent and maternal care.

Objectives and Strategies

•To institutionalize essential services and strengthen infrastructures at all levels Implementing ICDS to prevent under nourishment and assure children of the best possible start to life, focussing on children under-3 years; focussing on early child care and learning environment.

•To enhance capacities at all levels Training of all functionaries / staff to strengthen field based joint action and teamwork to achieve desired results and laid down objectives.

•To ensure appropriate inter-sectoral responses at all levels

Ensure convergence at the grass root level by strengthening partnership with the Health, Rural Development and Panchayat Raj, Municipal Administration and Water Supply Departments and Communities to improve outreach and quality of child development services. •To raise public awareness at all levels and participation

Inform the beneficiary group and public on the availability of the four core child development services under ICDS and promote social mobilization and voluntary action.

•To create database and knowledge base for child development services Strengthen ICDS Management Information System (MIS); Use Information Communication Technology (ICT) to strengthen the information base and facilitate sharing and dissemination of information; Undertake research and documentation.

Services provided under ICDS

The objectives of ICDS are delivered through a package of six services:-

i. Supplementary Nutrition
ii. Non formal preschool education
iii. Nutrition and Health Education
iv. Immunization
v. Health Checkups
vi. Referral services
Umbrella ICDS Scheme

In the financial year 2016-2017 Government of India renamed the restructured ICDS into umbrella ICDS scheme within its ambit. During 2017, Government of India have brought the National Nutrition Mission, Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana (PMMVY), under Umbrella ICDS inclusive of the following sub schemes.

i. Anganwadi Services (in place of ICDS)
ii. Scheme for Adolescent Girls (erstwhile SABLA)
iii. Child Protection Services (erstwhile Integrated Child Protection Scheme)
iv. National Creche Scheme (erstwhile Rajiv Gandhi National Creche Scheme)
v. National Nutrition Mission and
vi. Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana (PMMVY)

Universalisation of ICDS – Opening Of New Centres

In order to fulfill its commitment towards universalisation of ICDS and operationalising 14 lakh Child Centres – (Anganwadi Centres) throughout the Country, the Government of India have revised the population, nutrition and financial guidelines for setting up of the Child Centres based on the recommendations of the Inter-Ministerial Task Force.

In Tamil Nadu, the Integrated Child Development Services Scheme (ICDS) is now implemented through 49,499 Main Anganwadi Centres and 4,940 Mini Anganwadi Centres, totalling to 54,439 centres functioning under 434 ICDS Projects. Of which, 385 are rural projects, 47 are urban projects and 2 are tribal projects.

Beneficiaries of the Scheme

a) Children in the age group of birth to 72 months
b) Adolescent girls (11-14 years, out of school only)
c) Pregnant women and Lactating mothers

Supplementary Nutrition

Tamil Nadu is a pioneer state in implementing various nutritional schemes, with an aim to march towards “Malnutrition Free Tamil Nadu” among children, Adolescent girls, Pregnant and Lactating Mothers. In order to bridge the protein and energy gap between the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) and average dietary intake of ICDS beneficiaries, the following efforts are being put into operation.

Weaning Food

To increase the nutritional level of the children, supplementary nutrition in the form of complementary (weaning) food is provided to children in the age group of 6 months to 36 months, Pregnant and Lactating mothers, Adolescent girls (11 to 14 years out of school) and additional quantity of supplementary nutrition is provided to children in the age group of 3 to 5 years in 5 districts which are prone for Japanese Encephalitis Syndrome.

Though the fund sharing pattern for the cost of Supplementary nutrition is 50:50 between Centre and State, the State Government incurs more than the mandatory norms fixed by Government of India. Every month the quality of Supplementary Weaning Food is being tested by Food and Nutrition Board and in Government Accredited Labs at random basis.

Nutritional intervention in Japanese Encephalitis affected areas

Five districts namely Karur, Madurai, Thanjavur, Thiruvarur, and Villupuram have been identified as high risk areas prone to be affected with Japanese Encephalitis. Undernutrition is an important factor for Japanese Encephalitis syndrome. Hence special efforts are being taken to improve the nutritional status of the moderately/severely under nourished children in the age group of 37 months to 60 months. These children are provided with 80 gms of additional Supplementary Nutrition (Complementary Weaning Food) for 300 days in a year through Anganwadi centres. Thus, in coordination with Health Department, the Japanese Encephalitis cases has been reduced.

Variety Meal to Anganwadi Children (2 to 5+ children)

In consultation with the renowned Nutritionists and considering the special nature and digestive capacity of children below the age of 5+ years attending Anganwadi Centres, the provision of following Variety Meal programme was introduced in one block of each district on 20.03.2013 on a pilot basis and then, the scheme has been further extended to all Anganwadi Centres throughout the State with effect from 15.08.2014.

The Government have enhanced the feeding charges for the Variety Rice Scheme from 56 paise to `1.13 in the days dhal is used and `1.35 in the days dhal is not used.

Fortification of Food Materials

Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) has formulated comprehensive regulations for fortified foods under Food Safety and Standards Act 2006. Accordingly Government of India has advised the State Government to ensure mandatory fortification of salt, wheat flour and edible oil under Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS), Mid Day Meal (MDM) Programme and Public Distribution System (PDS) during 2017. However with foresight, considering the best interest of the children, the State of Tamil Nadu implemented the usage of Iodised salt under Nutritious Meal Programme during 1991 itself.
•The Tamil Nadu Salt Corporation Limited is supplying Iron and Iodine fortified (Doubled Fortified) salt to all Anganwadi Centres.
•Palmolien oil fortified with Vitamin A & Vitamin D, free from Argemone oil supplied to Anganwadi Centres by Tamil Nadu Civil Supplies Corporation.
•To enhance the nutritive value of Supplementary Weaning Food, Micro Nutrients and soluble Vitamins are being added.

Weight Monitoring

Under Integrated Child Development Services Scheme, weight of 0 to 5 years children is being taken and monitored every month and plotted in the WHO register. From the growth curve, the nutritional status is assessed and action is taken to address malnourished children. Age appropriate Weighing machines i.e. Baby Weighing Scale, Bar Weighing Scale and Adult Weighing scale are provided to the Anganwadi Centres for monitoring the weight of beneficiaries in Anganwadi centres.

Convergence Activities with Health Department

The health intervention activities, particularly immunization of children and pregnant mothers, Iron Folic Acid supplementation, Deworming Tablets/Syrup, referral services and providing Vitamin-A, all such activities have been carefully planned and implemented with the co-ordinated efforts of both ICDS and Health functionaries.

Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE)

Early Childhood Care and Education refers to programmes and provisions for children from prenatal to six years of age which cater to the needs of a child in all domains of development i.e. physical, motor, language, cognitive, socio-emotional, creative, aesthetic appreciation, ensure synergy with health and nutrition aspects. This could cover developmental priorities for each sub stage within the continuum, i.e. care, early stimulation/interaction needs for children below 3 years and developmentally appropriate preschool education for 3 to 6 year children with a more structured and planned school readiness component for 5 to 6 year children. In line with the National ECCE Policy 2013, State specific, developmentally and age appropriate Annual Contextualized Curriculum termed as “AADI PAADI VILAIYADU PAPPA” has been developed by ICDS and the same has been validated by Government of India. This curriculum consists of 11 month theme based activities to be conducted for children at Anganwadi Centres, 12th month being the revision of the same. Necessary Teaching Learning Materials (TLMs) viz. ECCE Curriculum Books for Anganwadi Workers, Activity Book, Assessment Cards and Pre-school kit materials for children has been provided to all Anganwadi Centres.